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LEXICON

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paang (ปาง)

See pahng.

Pacific Reef Egret

Common name for a large wading bird, with the binomial designation Egretta sacra. READ ON.

pad (พัด)

Thai. Fan. Of old an utensil of the Far East.

pad bai kapho (Ѵ㺡о)

Thai. A small, round to heart or lotus-shaped fan, with a short handle, and woven from the dried leaves of the fan palm. READ ON.

pad bai laan (พัดใบลาน)

Thai. Fan made of the leaf of a species of palm called Corypha lecontei, which is similar to the sugar palm or ton taan. In China, similar palm-fans known as bajiao shan, are often exquisitely decorated with typical Chinese patterns and designs, and used as decorative items (fig.). It is an attribute of Phra Malai and Shin Thiwali.

pa daek (ປາແດກ)

Lao for pla daek.

pad daam jiw (พัดด้ามจิ้ว)

Thai. A folding fan (fig.). Traditionally made in Chiang Mai in North Thailand and usually painted with scenes of Thai landscapes or ornamental motifs. The folding fan originated in Japan in the 8th century and was taken to China in the 9th century by a Japanese monk who had brought some folding fans to China as an offer to the Emperor. See also fan.

Paddyfield Pipit

Common name for a small passerine bird in the pipits and wagtail family Motacillidae, and with the scientific designation Anthus rufulus. READ ON.

pad lek (Ѵ)

Thai for iron fan. See tessen.

padma (पद्म)

Sanskrit. Lotus flower, i.e. a pink lotus. White, red and blue lotuses are called differently, i.e. pundarika, kamala, and utpala, respectively. In general, the lotus is a symbol in Indian culture associated with purity, creativity and fertility, and the padma or pink lotus is generally reserved for the highest deities and the Buddha himself. In Buddhism, it is a symbol of Enlightenment. In iconography the lotus is often used as a pedestal for Buddha images or a base for Hindu deities. See also pathum and Padma.

Padma (पद्म)

Sanskrit. Another name for the Hindu goddess Lakshmi, in her form as mother of the earth. See also padma.

Padmapani (पद्मपाणि)

Sanskrit. Lotus in the hand. The bodhisattva Avalokitesvara in his appearance as creator, depicted with many small figures that emerge from his body and represent all beings, gods, and buddhas over whom he has the power to create. See also Radiating Avalokitesvara.

Padmasambhava (पद्मसम्भव)

Sanskrit. Name of a deity considered to be an emanation of the Amitabha Buddha and worshiped in Vajrayana Buddhism and Lamaism. He is also known as Guru Rinpoche, among many other appellations.

padmasana (पद्मसन)

Sanskrit. Lotus throne. The seated pose of a divinity (asana) with crossed legs forming a circular space resembling an open lotus. See also pathum and padma.

Padong (ปะด่อง)

One of the subgroups of the Longneck Karen in Thailand, originally from Burma. They live principally in the province of Mae Hong Son.

padwaanlawichanih (พัดวาลวีชนี)

Thai. Royal Fan and Yak's Tail or Royal Fan and Fly Whisk. Part of the Thai royal regalia or kakuttapan. These are symbolic items that the king uses to ward off any peril that may befall his people. During the reign of king Rama I the fly whisk was made from yak hair, but this was changed during the reign of king Mongkut (Rama IV), replacing it with the tail-hair of a White Elephant, a tradition that still lasts today.

pad yot (พัดยศ)

Thai. Fan of rank. A kind of fan attached to a stick and used in certain religious and in royal ceremonies. READ ON.

pae kuay (แป๊ะกวย, С)

Thai name for the Ginkgo biloba (fig.), as well as for it seed, i.e. a kind of a semi-large bean with a hard nut-like shell (fig.). When peeled it is of a yellowish colour and used in soups as well as in rice dishes. In English the seeds are known as ginkgo nuts, after the tree they grow on. This tree, which is found in China, is a unique species of tree, with no close living relatives and thus classified as a single species in its own family, i.e. Ginkgoaceae. Ginkgo nuts are often seen for sale in bulk on markets around Bangkok's Chinatown. Also spelt pae guay.

paengman (แป้งมัน)

Thai name for tapioca starch, starch of the cassava.

Paet Riw (แปดริ้ว)

Thai. Eight lines or eight stripes. A nickname for Chachengsao (fig.), that derives from a story which relates that the city's river (fig.) once teemed with giant snake-head fish that needed up to eight cuts (paet riw - fig.) on each side, to make it into sun-dried fish.

Pagan (ပုဂံ)

1. For 230 years the capital of Burma and the city (fig.) of Burma's Golden Era, between the 11th and 13th centuries AD. Its earliest edifice dates from the late ninth century and it was probably founded in 849 AD by the Burmese who lived on the irrigated rice lands of the Mandalay region (fig.), after the collapse of the earlier Pyo kingdom. The city was eventually abandoned subsequent to the invasion of Kublai Khan in 1287. There are still around 2,217 pagodas among the remains of another 2,000 temple ruins. See also Pegu and Hongsawadih. Nowadays transliterated Bagan.

2. Art style from the period and region of Pagan, and amply on display at the Bagan Archaeological Museum in Old Bagan (fig.).

pagoda

1. A temple, religious or sacred tower, usually in a tapering shape and consisting of several stories, and found in Burma, China, Vietnam (fig.), Korea and Japan. Its form is often octagonal and it usually has an odd number of stories, as this corresponds with the yang principle of the yin-yang concept, i.e. the bright aspect, which relates to Enlightenment and thus in turn also to heaven. Similar to and sometimes used as a translation for the Thai word chedi, along with the word stupa. It may also refer to an idol found in such a temple or tower. In Thai known as tha.

2. Idol found in such a temple.

3. In Vietnam, a temple in Mahayana Buddhism.

4. In Myanmar, term used generally to refer to a temple and its compound, that is any temple, whether it has an actual pagoda, i.e. a sacred tower (zedi or stupa), or not. In this manner it is similar as described above, i.e. an idol found in a temple. In Burmese referred to as Phaya.

pagri (पगड़ी)

Hindi. Turban. Name of a shawl-like piece of cloth, that is worn as a kind of headwear, manually wound around the top of the head of men in India. READ ON.

pah chok (Ҩ)

Thai. Name for a kind of traditional cloth (fig.) from Central Thailand, which is produced by using the chok weaving technique (fig.). It is typically woven from silk or cotton, or from a combination of both. Also transcribed phah jok.

pah gohng gahng (ป่าโกงกาง)

Thai name for mangrove woods.

pah hahd siao (Ҵ)

Thai. Name for a kind of fabric with different patterns, woven with the use of a supplementary weft technique. It is a product from Sri Satchanalai, where it is traditionally woven by the Thai Phuan.

pah kahsahwapad (ผ้ากาสาวพัสตร์)

Thai. The saffron −or alternatively, ochre to brown− coloured robe for Buddhist monks. Within the temple compound this robe covers only one shoulder, but when monks go outside they usually cover themselves completely (fig.). When working (fig.) they wear a lighter shirt called angsa (fig.). In both Buddhism and Hinduism, saffron and ochre are colours that symbolize renunciation. Also kahsahwapad. See also traijiewon.

pahkaomah (ผ้าขาวม้า)

Thai. Multi-functional loincloth usually worn around the waist by farmers (fig.), when not used. It serves as a sarong, a loincloth for bathing in the open or as a headscarf but may also be applied as an improvised bag and sometimes even to cook food in.

pah khit (ҢԵ)

Thai. Khit cloth. Name for an ancient type of hand-woven cloth (fig.), which is produced in certain areas of Isaan. It typically uses geometric patterns in contrasting colors, usually a darker pattern over a light background, often with the colours red, purple and dark green. Formerly this style of cloth was used in the traditional household dress of the area, like shoulder cloths, but also to make pillows that are generally known as mon khit, etc. In the past it was customary for Isaan girls to learn to weave khit cloth before getting married. There are about 72 different patterns, each with its own specific designation. In 2004, some of those patterns (fig.) were publicized on a set of four Thai postage stamps (fig.).

pahk nahm (ҡ)

1. Thai designation for the estuary of a river. Sometimes transliterated Paknam.

2. Thai. Nickname for the city of Samut Prakan, which is located at the estuary of the Chao Phraya River. Sometimes transliterated Paknam, as in Paknam Incident.

3. Thai. Name of a tambon in the amphur Sawankhalok, in the province of Sukhothai (fig.). See also POSTAGE STAMP.

pah krahb (ผ้ากราบ)

Thai. Prostrating cloth. A piece of cloth placed in front of an altar or Buddha image for resting one's hands and head while praying. This 25 by 50 centimetre yellow cloth is mainly used by -especially newly ordained- monks and novices and is often seen attached to their traijiewon.

pah mai saket (ผ้าไหมสาเกต)

Thai name for an ancient pattern on silk cloth from Roi Et, made (fig.) with the matmi thechnique (fig.). It is mainly pinkish to violet in colour and has a very detailed pattern, using colours that usually include white and gold. Also transcribed pha mai saket and sometimes called pah mai laai saket.

pah leh laai (ป่าเลไลย์)

See Parileyyaka and pahng pah leh laai.

pahng (ปาง)

Thai. The attitude, position, pose or style of a Buddha image, e.g. as used in the Phra prajam wan system. Also paang.

pahng bamphen thukkarakiriyah (ҧ筷ءá)

Thai-Rajasap. The pose of practicing suffering or the attitude of observing mortification. A style of Buddha image in the attitude of mortification (fig.). READ ON.

pahng chan samoh (ปางฉันสมอ)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of eating the gall-nut fruit. Buddha image seated in the half lotus position with his left hand in his lap and with his right hand placing the gall-nut fruit (samoh) in his mouth to eat (chan). The Buddha sits enjoying happiness under a tree during the seventh week after his Enlightenment when in the morning Indra offers him the samoh, the medicinal fruit of the gall-nut tree, a tree of the genus Terminalia. An alternative pose referring to the same narrative is called pahng rab (phon) samoh and shows the Buddha accepting the fruit with his right hand. Also pahng chan phon samoh.

pahng hahm phra kaen jan (ปางห้ามพระแก่นจันทน์)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of stopping the sandalwood Buddha image. Buddha image in a standing pose with a abhaya mudra corresponding to Monday in the Phra prajam wan system. In this pose the left hand is raised with the palm forward as if making a stopping sign and it refers to a scene when the Buddha returned from Tavatimsa heaven. When the Buddha was away king Udayana had a sandalwood replica made of him which he erected in a large hall in Sravasti. On his return this Buddha image greeted the Buddha in a miraculous manner, but the Buddha stopped this by raising his left hand ordering the image back to its place to enable it to serve as an example for the making of other images after his death. A variation of this is the abhaya mudra with the right hand raised, known as pahng hahm yaht. Only in Thailand there exists yet another variation in which the Buddha has two hands raised in front of him with the palm forward (fig.), known as the pose of calming the waters, in Thai pahng hahm samut.

pahng hahm samut (ปางห้ามสมุทร)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of stopping the ocean or calming the waters. Buddha image in a standing pose with an abhaya mudra performed with two hands, a pose found only in Thailand. This pose correspond with Monday in the Phra prajam wan system and refers to an episode where the Buddha calmed the flood waters of the Nairanjana River, a tributary of the Ganges in North India. See also pahng hahm yaht and pahng hahm phra kaen jan.

pahng hahm yaht (ปางห้ามญาติ)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of stopping the relatives or calming the relatives. Buddha image in a standing pose with an abhaya mudra corresponding to Monday in the Phra prajam wan system. In this pose the right hand is raised with the palm forward, as making a stopping sign. It refers to an episode where the Buddha  returning from Tavatimsa heaven after an absence of three months stopped a quarrel among his relatives over the rights for water of a river flowing through their land. He arbitrated between blood relatives, of both his father and mother, forcing them to make a compromise and share the water. See also pahng hahm phra kaen jan and pahng hahm samut.

pahng kho fon (ปางขอฝน)

Thai. Position of requesting for rain. Buddha image in a seated or standing pose in which the right hand is held forward on chest level with the finger tips pointing forward or upward and the left hand is bent in front of the waist with the palm upward as if forming a bowl. This pose is related to the pahng song nahm pose and refers to a scene in which the Buddha calls for rain after a long period of drought. In some images the head of the Buddha is lifted upward, as if looking at the sky in anticipation of the coming rain (fig.). See also gandharattha.

pahng leelah (ҧ)

Thai-Rajasap. Attitude of the gracefully procession. Thai designation for a walking Buddha. Also spelled paang lihlaa. See also Leelah.

pahng nahg prok (ปางนาคปรก)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of the overspreading naga. Buddha image seated in meditation on the coiled body of the naga Muchalinda that uses its head as a cover against rain. This pose refers to a scene during the sixth week after Siddhartha's Enlightenment, when the naga king protected the Buddha, who was in deep meditation under a Taengwood Tree, against heavy rainfall by making a shelter with his multi-headed hood and lifted him above the flood waters by coiling its body under him. According to some old texts it coiled its body around the Buddha (fig.). This pose corresponds with Saturday in the Phra prajam wan system. Occasionally represented with the Buddha seated in a bhumisparsa pose (fig.), a pose often found in Myanmar (fig.), where the overspreading naga is also found depicted over a standing Buddha (fig.). Besides this, it may also refers to Vishnu, of whom the Buddha is an avatar, and who is also often represented seated (fig.) or reclining on the giant snake Ananta, e.g. Anantasayin (fig.). See also POSTAGE STAMP.

pahng pah leh laai (ปางป่าเลไลย์)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of Parileyyaka (pah leh laai) [forest]. Buddha image in a pose seated in western style with a monkey and an elephant in the front. This image corresponds with Wednesday during night-time in the Phra prajam wan system. The pose refers to a scene in Kausambi during the tenth year after the Buddha's Enlightenment, when the disciples were quarreling amongst themselves causing the Buddha to retire in the forest, searching for calm. A monkey then brought him honey to eat and an elephant, water to lessen his thirst. This pose is also called Rahu (compare with Rahu in the Indian Phra prajam wan system - fig.).

pahng peut lohk (ҧԴš)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of opening the world. Buddha image in a standing pose, with the arms pendent alongside his body, the forearms lifted slightly outwards and the palms turned forwards. READ ON.

pahng phijahranah chara tham (ҧԨóҪҸ)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of meditating on the dhamma of aging. Buddha image seated in the half lotus position, with both hands resting on the knees, the palms down. In English it is usually called the Consider the Great Truth pose, but also referred to as the pose of Considering Old Age. The pose relates to the final year of his life, when the Buddha stopped at a place near Vulture's Peak, known as Veluvana. Aged eighty and seriously ill, the Buddha preached to his disciple Ananda on physical decay, explaining him the Law (Dhamma) of Old Age, i.e. that sickness, old age and death are inevitable to all creatures, describing his body as an old cart which must be repaired with bamboo, and bundled up with narrow strips of leather. The pose is confusingly similar to pahng rab matoop yaht, in which a Buddha image seated in the half lotus position, has both hands resting on the knees, the palms up.

pahng plong kammatahn (ปางปลงกรรมฐาน)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of meditating (kammataan) on the cremation or disposal of [a corpse] (plong). Buddha image in a standing pose with a walking stick hanging from his left hand and his right arm pointing downward, the hand slightly forward as if making a gesture, although the positions of the right hand and arm may vary slightly, and sometimes he is holding the walking stick with his left hand (fig.), rather than letting it hang from the hand. It refers to the scene in which the Buddha meditates beside the corpse of a girl in Sawatthi on the nature of phenomenal existence and its cessation. Afterwards he took the girl's shroud and made it into a monastic robe thus symbolizing the transience of life.

pahng prathap yeun (ปางประทับยืน)

Thai. Position of standing at ease. Buddha image in a standing pose with both arms hanging  passively alongside the body and the eyes downcast. In this pose the Buddha stands quietly before commencing his duties thus reflecting his complete awareness of what he is doing.

pahng proht Alavaka yak (ҧôǡѡ)

Thai. Position of preaching to the yak Alavaka. Buddha image in a seated pose, with the left hand on his lap and the right hand raised in front of the chest with the fingers folded, as in the preaching manner. It is the Buddha image worshipped by people that are born in the year of the rat.

pahng proht sat (ҧôѵ)

Thai. Position of preaching to living creatures. Buddha image as the guardian of animals, in a standing pose with the right hand raised and palm forward, similar to the abhaya mudra, whilst the other hand is raised and stretched outward with the palm up (fig.). The pose refers to a scene in the life of the Buddha when he stayed in a mango grove near the city of Nalantha (ѹ) and told Asiphanthabut (Ծѹص)), a local headman, that he always extends loving-kindness to all living creatures and taught the dhamma thoroughly, without any prejudice to any human being, including people from other religions.

pahng rab matoop yaht (ҧѺػ)

Thai. Position of accepting rice porridge. Fame for the pose of a Buddha image seated in the half lotus position, with both hands resting on the knees, the palms up. It refers to the episode in the Buddha's life before his Enlightenment, when he accepted milk-rice or rice porridge from a young, rich and beautiful milkmaid named Sujata. The pose is confusingly similar to pahng phijahranah chara tham, in which a Buddha image seated in the half lotus position, has both hands resting on the knees, the palms down.

pahng rab samoh (ปางรับสมอ)

Thai. Position of accepting the gall-nut fruit. Buddha image seated in the half lotus position with his left hand in his lap and his right arm extended to accept (rab) the gall-nut fruit (samoh). The Buddha sits enjoying happiness under a tree during the seventh week after his Enlightenment when in the morning Indra offers him the samoh, the medicinal fruit of the gall-nut tree, a tree of the genus Terminalia. An alternative pose referring to the same narrative is called pahng chan (phon) samoh and shows the Buddha placing the fruit in his mouth with his right hand. Also pahng rab phon samoh.

pahng ram peung (ปางรำพึง)

Thai. Position of reflecting or thinking in retrospect. Buddha image in a standing pose with both hands crossed over the chest, meaning contemplation, consideration or retrospective thinking. This pose refers to a scene in which the Buddha contemplates the subtle nature of dhamma and ponders on how to reveal this to mankind. This happened after the visit of the two merchants Tapussa and Bhalika came to pay their respects. The Buddha considered that his teachings may be understood better by some than by others. He compared this with the image of lotus flowers, of which some are already flourishing above the water while others are still below the surface awaiting their bloom. The pose of this image corresponds with Friday in the Phra prajam wan system. See also POSTAGE STAMP.

pahng saiyaat (ปางไสยาสน์)

Thai. Position of sleeping or reclining. Buddha image in a reclining pose. READ ON.

pahng samahti (ปางสมาธิ)

Thai. Position of meditation. Buddha image in the seated pose of concentration or meditation, similar to the dhyani mudra. It refers to a higher form of meditation and corresponds with Thursday in the Phra prajam wan system, associated with teachers, lawyers and judges. See also samaddhi.

pahng song nahm (ปางสรงน้ำ)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of having a bath. Buddha image in a standing pose with a bathing cloth over the left shoulder and the right hand in front of the chest, as if throwing rain water over himself. The left arm hangs passively alongside the body. This pose refers to a scene that happened in Kosala district at Sravasti, in India. After receiving many meagre meals in his alms bowl during a prolonged period of drought the Buddha pitied the population and asked his disciples for a bathing cloth near a lotus pond in the garden of Jetavana. When he started to walk in the direction of the pond it began raining and the Buddha washed himself with rainwater. See also pahng kho fon.

pahng tawaai naet (ปางถวายเนตร)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of dedicating (tawaai) [with] the eyes. Buddha image in a standing pose with the arms crossed in front of the waist, the right hand resting on the left. It refers to a scene just after the Buddha's Enlightenment when he, according to legend, admired the bodhi tree in gratitude for a whole week without even blinking his eyes (naet). During  this event the Buddha was in a state of bliss in which he realized the triviality of all foregoing in his life and contemplated on the suffering of all living things, including the bodhi tree. This image corresponds with Sunday in the Phra prajam wan system and its name may also be translated as the open-eyed posture. It is also known as the position of standing in pensive thought.

pahng thukkarakiriyah (ҧءá)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of mortification or attitude of suffering. A bearded Buddha image in a seated, meditation pose with a thin, emaciated body (fig.). The image refers to a scene in which Siddhartha and the panjawakkih practiced extreme asceticism for six years in a place near the village of Uruvela. He tried to bring his body and passions into subjection by self-denial but his extreme mortification almost resulted in his death, following the idea of Mahavira, who taught that anyone who overcame his desires would be prepared to fast to death (fig.). In the end however, he concluded that there is a middle path between austerity and worldliness and abandoned his mortification. Also called pahng bamphen thukkarakiriyah.

pahng um baat (ปางอุ้มบาตร)

Thai-Rajasap. Position of carrying the alms bowl (baat). Buddha image in a standing pose holding an alms bowl with both hands. This image corresponds with Wednesday during daytime in the Phra prajam wan system. This pose refers to the first morning in Kapilavasthu on the Buddha's first visit to his father's palace. In the early morning he went to beg for food among the subjects of his father since nobody had actually invited him for breakfast, although they had received him the night before and had prepared breakfast. Tradition however does not allow mendicant monks to ask for food but eat whatever they are offered by believers.

pah nung (ҹ)

Thai. To wear a cloth as a lower garment. Name for a traditional sarong-like garment for both women and men, especially in the past. READ ON.

pah phrae mongkon ()

Thai name for a piece of silk cloth in several different colours used in elemental worship and tied around objects, either to worship or for protection, such as the bow of a boat or a tree. In spite of its name this cloth is usually not made of silk (phrae) but is rather of a synthetic fabric. See also hom pah.

pah prachiad (ผ้าประเจียด)

Thai. Piece of cloth with yan numbers and sacred script, used as a charm to make someone invulnerable. Often red but appears also in others colours. Also known as pah yan. See also prachiad. They are often placed above door lintels to bless anyone entering or leaving the house. In Nepal and Tibet, similar pieces of cloth are used as prayer flags. They are put out in the open and the wind will send the prayers written on them out in the world, a principle similar to the Tibetan prayer wheel.

pah thip (ผ้าทิพย์)

Thai. Celestial or heavenly cloth. Ornament or decorated piece of cloth hanging in front of a pedestal. It is part of the pedestal and made from the same material. Usually with seated Buddha images or other seated deities.

pah thong goh (ปาท่องโก๋)

Thai-Chinese. Name of a wok-fried pastry which, prior to consumption, is usually dipped in soya milk (nahm tao hoo), sweet and sour milk, or coffee. When fried the dough becomes of a golden colour and swells into a quaint curved x-shape. Sometimes translated as Chinese donut.

pah tihn jok (ҵչ)

Thai. Piece of cloth with a decorative pattern, woven with silk and used as part of skirt-like dress. The pattern often has embroidery, made with golden or silver braid or tinsel in the form of a thread, which is woven with intervals, resembling falling rain. Also transcribed pha teen chok, or similar. See also pah nung.

pahtimohk (ปาติโมกข์)

Thai. The code of 227 precepts for a Buddhist monk. See also Buddhist precepts.

pah wai (ผ้าไหว้)

Thai. Cloth or clothes offered by a groom to his parents in law, after a wedding ceremony.

pah yan (ѹ)

See pah prachiad.

pah yok (ผ้ายก)

Thai name for brocade.

pai (ไพ)

Thai. An obsolete coin equal to three satang.

paifang (牌坊)

Chinese. Memorial archway or signboard archway. Name of a traditional Chinese-style architectural edifice in the form of a decorated archway. READ ON.

paijayon (ไพชยนต์)

Thai. Name for Indra's abode, banner and vehicle.

Painted Bronzeback

Another designation for the Common Bronzeback.

Painted Copperleaf

See hoo plah son.

Painted Jezebel

Common name for a medium-sized butterfly, with the binomial name Delias hyparete. READ ON.

Painted Stork

Common name for a large wading bird, with the scientific designation Mycteria leucocephala. READ ON.

pa-kahrang (Сѧ)

Thai generic designation for coral, i.e. both solitary and colonial marine invertebrates that develop from coelenterate organisms and consist of a deposit of calcium carbonate, with the coelenterate animal producing a calcareous skeleton and polyps. Over time the coral develop into coral rocks and coral islands, thus creating a coral reef. There are many different kinds, each with its own varieties, including Sea Whips or Sea Fans (fig.), Brain Corals (fig.), Flower Pot Corals (fig.), Mushroom Corals (fig.), Flower Corals (fig.), Bubble Corals (fig.), Common Lettuce Corals, etc.

pa-kahrang dokmai (Сѧ͡)

Thai name for Wonder Coral. It is a compound of pa-kahrang and dokmai, and can thus be translated as flower coral.

pak kae salak (ผักแกะสลัก)

Thai. The culinary art of sculpturing vegetables into shapes and reliefs, usually in order to adorn banquets. It is related to fruit carving, which is known in Thai as ponlamai kae salak (fig.), though both arts are similar and their terms are often used interchangeably, and they are very often practiced together (fig.). Most commonly, larger-sized vegetables are used, such as pumpkins, East Asian white radishes (fig.), and carrots. Besides being merely decorative, the carved vegetables may in certain cases also have a practical use, e.g. a carved pumpkin, that is hollowed out and used as a bowl to serve food (fig.). Also transcribed phak gae salak. See also POSTAGE STAMPS.

Paknam Incident

A military engagement that took place during the Franco-Siamese War near Samut Prakan, and is named after this city located at the estuary of the Chao Phraya River. READ ON.

pak pao (ปักเป้า)

1. Thai. A female kite that fights the chula (fig.), the male kite, during kite contests. The aim is to try and eliminate each others kite in the air. The pak pao has a diamond shape. See also kite flying fights.

2. Thai for globe fish, balloon fish or puffer of the genus Tetraodon.

paksah (ปักษา)

Thai-Pali for bird, particularly used in literature, next to paksi and paksin, all with the same meaning. Mythological compound creatures with some features of a bird, often carry one of the above designations in their name, e.g. Kabin Paksah, Kraison Paksah, Asurapaksi, Theppaksi, etc.

paksi (ѡ)

Thai-Pali for bird. Also transcribed paksih or paksee. See also paksah.

paksin (ѡԹ)

Thai-Pali for bird. See also paksah.

pak tob chawa (ผักตบชวา)

Thai for water hyacinth.

Pala (पाल)

1. Dynasty that ruled over the Bihar and Bengal regions in northern India, between the 8th and 12th centuries AD.

2. Name given to an art form between the 8th and 12th centuries AD from the North Indian empire of Bihar and Bengal.

palanquin

Indian style sedan chair with a hood and concealing curtains. Also yahnamaht and yahnumaht. See also saliang and kaanhaam.

Pale-chinned Flycatcher

Common name for a kind of Flycatcher, with the scientific designation Cyornis poliogenys and a common resident in Nepal, below altitudes of 455 meters. It is about 18 centimeters large and has a greyish head and a well-defined pale creamy throat. The breast is creamy-orange and at the flanks, these colours merge with the whitish belly. Its upperparts are grey, which is darker on the sides.

Pale Grass Blue

Common name for a very small, about 26 to 30 millimeter-sized butterfly. READ ON.

Pale Orb Weaver

Common name for a small spider, with the scientific designation Araneus mitificus and which is found in many countries of South, East, and Southeast Asia. READ ON.

Pali

An ancient language derived from Vedic Sanskrit and used in the sacred texts of Theravada or Hinayana Buddhism, contrary to Sanskrit  which is used in Mahayana Buddhism. Pali texts were originally recorded in Sinhala, the official script of Sri Lanka, as well as in other scripts, such as Khmer and Burmese. Later also Mongolian, Thai and Devanagari, through to a Romanized form, have been used.

palladium

1. A sacred image upon which protective and supernatural powers are bestowed.

2. Rare white metallic element used as a catalyst and in jewellery.

Pallava

A Hindu dynasty in Southeast India that flourished between the 4th and 8th centuries AD usually classified as post Gupta, from the 6th to 8th century AD, a significant period in art history.

Palong (ͧ, ပလောင်)

Name of a hill tribe people in Thailand, that originally come from Burma's Shan State (fig.). READ ON.

Pa-mah (พม่า)

Thai name for Burma, which derives from Bamar, i.e. the name of the dominant ethnic group in Myanmar, which is Thai is similarly known as Chao Pa-mah.

Panaspati (पनस्पति)

Sanskrit. Lord of the jungle or lord of the wilderness. A form of Shiva who offers protection against the dangers and demons of the jungle. The term also refers to either a composite winged animal head or a mythical animal that combines the body of Nondi (Shiva's bull), the wings of Hamsa (Brahma's swan) and the head of the Garuda (Vishnu's vehicle), sometimes assumed to be the same as Brahmanaspati. In Thailand as well as in Mon Dvaravati art it is occasionally depicted as the vehicle of the Buddha. Sometimes equated with kala, kala face or kirtimukha.

Panax pseudoginseng

Latin. Scientific name for ginseng.

pan chang (盘长)

Chinese name for the Chinese Knot.

panda

Large, bear-like, black and white mammals native to China and Tibet. READ ON.

pandanus

English-Latin. Large genus of trees with around 600 species, found from East Africa to Australasia and the Pacific. READ ON.

Pandava (पाण्डव)

The tribe who fought with the Kauravas in the battle at Kuruksthera. Their leader was Pandu and his descendants are hence known as the Pandavas. Whereas Pandu remained childless, he was given an offspring through his wives and the gods. The names of the Pandavas are Yudhishthira, Bhima, and Arjuna, who were begot by Kunti (कुन्ती) with Dharma (also known as Yama), Vayu, and Indra, respectively, and the twins Nakula and Sahadeva, who were born from Madri (माद्री) with the Ashwin Twins. All five brothers were married to the same woman, i.e. Draupadi (द्रौपदी), with whom each had a son of his own. See also Bhima Swarga.

pandita (पण्डित)

Sanskrit. Learned or literate, against apandita (अपण्डित), which means unlearned or illiterate. The original usage of the word refers to a Hindu, usually a Brahman priest, who has memorized a substantial portion of the Vedas, together with the corresponding rhythms for chanting them. Over time its usage changed, first referring to scholars and learned or wise men, especially those skilled in Sanskrit, Hindu law, religion, philosophy or even music, and today the word has become an honorary title conferred on experts with special knowledge of or skill in any subject or field. Both the English word pundit and the Thai word bandit are derived from it. See also Vithura Chadok.

Pandu (पाण्डु)

Sanskrit. Whitish. King of Hastinapur and leader of the Pandava tribe. He had two wives, i.e. Madri (माद्री), a princess of Madra (माद्र) Kingdom, and Kunti (कुन्ती). One day, he accidently shot a sage with an arrow while hunting in the forest, having mistaken him for a deer. Hence, he was cursed with a spell that prevented him of making love to his wives, save he would die. Remaining childless, Kunti begot three sons by the gods, i.e. with Yama, Vayu, and Indra, while Madri bore a twin son from the physicians to the gods, i.e. the Ashwin twins, the sons of Ashwini. Whereas the gods were the actual fathers of Pandu's offspring, Pandu is recognized as the earthly father of his sons, who are together known as the Pandavas.

pangkaan tang phra prajam wan (ผังการตั้งพระประจำวัน)

Thai. Plan used in the Hindu Phra prajam wan system indicating the order and direction of the different gods, including Rahu and Ketu. The system sometimes follows the navagrahas or nine planets and may hence be different from temple to temple. The position of the statues will therefore be made clear with a map or plan.

pangolin

Generic common name of a usually nocturnal, scaly mammal, of the genus Manis, of which there exist several species, with four of them found in South, East and Southeast Asia, i.e. the Sunda Pangolin (Manis javanica - fig.), also known as the Malayan Pangolin or Javan Pangolin; the Chinese Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla); the Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata); and the Philippine Pangolin (Manis culionensis), which is also known as Palawan Pangolin or Malintong. Both the Sunda Pangolin and the Malayan Pangolin are endangered species (fig.), especially due to a high demand from China, where their scales are used in Chinese traditional medicine, notwithstanding that it is today totally illegal and despite all the scientific evidence that these scales have no therapeutic value whatsoever. Due to their many scales, pangolins have often been compared to walking pine cones or artichokes. When it sleeps or feels threatened it curls up into a ball. This state of defense has led to its common name, which is said to derive from the Malay word pengguling, a term used for things that can be rolled up. Pangolins feed on ants and in order to do so, they have extremely long and sticky tongues, as well as strong claws that help them to remove bark or break into termite mounds, etc.

Pangpond (ѧ͹)

Thai. Name of a popular Thai cartoon character, which was invented and created by Pakdih Saenthawihsuk (ѡ ʹآ). He is presented as an ordinary boy, with large round eyes and 3 strands of hair on his head, and always wears blue shorts and a wine red T-shirt with a large white Thai letter P () on it, i.e. the first letter of his name. He has a lively imagination and a hyperactive personality. His curiosity often gets him into trouble, but he always finds a way out. He owns a dog called Big (บิ๊ก) and has a girlfriend named Na-moh (นะโม). In 1989, he first appeared in the Thai comic weekly Maha Sanook, but now is published in his own comic book. Since 2002, he also features in animated 3D comic movies and in 2003, Pangpond was chosen as the mascot on a set of four postage stamps issued to mark the Thai National Children's Day (fig.).

Pan Gu (盘古)

Chinese. Name of the first living being and creator of all in Chinese mythology, who slept in a black egg until he was born and started creation. READ ON.

panhtain ngo (ပန်းထိမ်ငို)

Burmese for Weeping Goldsmith.

panjanatie (ปัญจนที)

Sanskrit-Thai. The five great rivers of India. See also Sapta Sindhava.

panjawakkih (ปัญจวัคคีย์)

Sanskrit-Thai. The five ascetics to whom the Buddha gave his first sermon (fig.) and who eventually became his disciples. The head of these five ascetics was Ajnata Kaundinya. He was ordained a Buddhist monk by the Buddha and hence became the first ever monk in Buddhism.

pansa (พรรษา)

Thai. Rainy season. Period from June to October that coincides with Buddhist Lent when the monks retreat in their temples to study and meditate, and refrain from traveling to prevent destroying young vegetation and new life that blooms in this period. According to tradition many young boys are ordained as novices (naen) or monks (phra) for the duration of this period. See also khao pansa and owk pansa. Also transcribed phansa.

pan saai lohk (鹷š)

Thai. World sand sculpting. Name of an international art form, that consists of making sculptures from sand and which in Thailand is practiced especially in Chachengsao, where the sculptures usually represent characters and themes from Buddhism and the Ramakien, as well as from Thai folklore. Sand sculptures are also on display at Bangkok's Buddhist Art Garden House, which is known in Thai as Ban Suan Phuttasin (fig.).

panta (พันตา)

Thai. Thousand eyes. A name for the god Indra. Also transliterated Phan Tah.

Panthaka (पन्थक, ѹ)

Sanskrit-Thai. Name of one of the eighteen arahats, and the elderly brother of Chudapanthaka. READ ON.

panwatsa (พันวรรษา)

Thai. A king who lives for a thousand years, like the king from the story Khun Chang Khun Paen. See also Somdet Phra Pan Pie Luang. Also transliterated Phanwatsah.

Panya Nanthaphikku (ѭ ѹԡ)

Thai. Monk with the Wisdom of Ananda. Designation of a Buddhist monk (Phra pikku) from Pattalung Province. READ ON.

Pa-oh (ပအိုဝ့်)

Burmese. Name of an ethnic group in Myanmar, which are also known as Taungthu and Black Karen. READ ON.

Paowanasoon (ǹ)

Thai. Name of an important yak character from the Ramakien, who is fighting on the side of Totsakan. READ ON.

papaya

A small kind of tree with the scientific name Carica papaja that grows to a height of 7.5 meters. The unripe fruits are used as the main ingredient in the popular Thai dish somtam. When ripe the fruits turn orange and resemble the honey melon. Also called melon tree, pawpaw and in Thai malako.

Papaver somniferum

Latin. Sleep-inducing poppy. A 50 to 150 centimeter tall plant in the botanical family Papaveraceae, from which opium and morphine are extracted. Each plant normally yields 3 to 8 opium pods (fig.) and its flowers may vary in colour from white-pink to red-purple. In Thai known as ton fin.

paper mulberry tree

A deciduous tree with the scientific name Broussonetia papyrifera, which bark is used to make paper. In Thai, it is commonly known as ton sah, ton poh sah and ton poh krasah. See also mulberry and White Mulberry.

Paphiopedilum concolor

Latin-botanical name for a species of terrestrial orchid of the genus Paphiopedilum, endemic to southern China, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. READ ON.

Paphiopedilum exul

Latin-botanical name for a rare species of terrestrial orchid of the genus Paphiopedilum, endemic to Peninsular Thailand. READ ON.

Paphiopedilum sukhakulii

Latin-botanical name for a species of terrestrial orchid of the genus Paphiopedilum, endemic to Isaan. READ ON.

Paphiopedilum villosum

Latin-botanical name for a species of terrestrial orchid of the genus Paphiopedilum, endemic to northeastern India, southern China, Myanmar and Thailand. READ ON.

Paramanuchit Chinorot (ҹتԵ)

Thai. Name of the 28th son of King Rama I. READ ON.

param phao sop (ปะรำเผาศพ)

Thai. Body cremation pavilion. Thai term for a crematorium. Also tee plong sop and Phra Meru (Phra Mehn).

Parasurama (परशुराम)

Name of the sixth avatara of Vishnu, described as a descendant of Brahma and apprentice of Shiva. His attributes includes an axe, which he received after undertaking terrible penance to please Shiva, who in turn taught him the martial arts, making him master of all divine weapons. He is also one of the Seven Immortals of Hinduism, referred to in Sanskrit as Chiranjivi. Also transcribed Parasu-Rama and Parashurama.

Pareinma Shin Mingaung (ပရိမ္မရှင် မင်းခေါင်)

Burmese. One of 37 nats that belong to the official pantheon of spirits worshipped in Myanmar. During his life, he was the 11th Century AD King Kyiso of Pagan, and brother of King Anawrahta (fig.). He was the usurper who together with his brother Sokkate forced their stepfather, the 10-11th Century King Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu, i.e. the later nat Htibyuhsaung, to abdicate and become a recluse. Later, Kyiso was accidentally killed by a hunter's arrow while hunting for deer. After which his brother Sokkate became king for a while, until he was killed in a duel by Anawrahta for making his mother one of his consorts. See also LIST OF BURMESE NATS.

Pariah Kite

Common name for a bird of prey, with the scientific name Milvus migrans govinda, i.e. a subspecies of the Black Kite. READ ON.

parian (เปรียญ)

Thai. A graduate in theology.

parihataka (परिहाटक)

Sanskrit term for a ring worn around the arm or leg. See also keyuradhara.

Parileyyaka

Pali. Forest near Kausambi where two conversions took place. The first in the seventh year after the Buddha's Enlightenment, concerning the yaksha Avalaka, a tyrannous monster of immense powers who terrorized an entire city, and four years later, the conversion of the bandit Angulimala (fig.), the delinquent son of a brahmin who entered into the service of an evil master. It is also the forest to which the Buddha retired on his own to find rest and where he enjoyed the company of a lone elephant and a monkey, of whom he received miraculous assistance, a scene often portrayed in iconography and called pahng pah leh laai (fig.). In Thai usually called pah leh laai, but also pah li laaika, pah li laaik, pah leh laaik, pah pah li laaik (pah li laaik forest), and pah pah leh laai (pah leh laai forest). The name Parileyyaka is derived from the name of the elephant who waited on the Buddha.

parinippahn (ปรินิพพาน, परिनिब्बाण)

Thai-Pali. Term for a state of complete bliss. With regards to the Buddha, oblivious to worldly things, i.e. when he passed away (fig.). See also Mahaparinirvana.

parinirvana (परनिर्वाणि)

Sanskrit. In Buddhism the final nirvana after death, when all rebirths cease. See also Mahaparinirvana.

parinyah (ปริญญา)

Thai for an academic degree. See also education.

parinyah aek (ปริญญาเอก)

Thai for a doctor's degree or doctorate. See also education.

parinyah toh (ปริญญาโท)

Thai for a master's degree. See also education.

parinyah trih (ปริญญาตรี)

Thai for a bachelor's degree. See also education.

Paris Peacock

Name of a large species of swallowtail butterfly, with the scientific name Papilio paris. READ ON.

Parvati (पार्वती)

Sanskrit. Daughter of the mountain. The shakti of Shiva in a serene form (fig.) and mother of Ganesha (fig.). Also known as Uma and Devi.

pasa (पाश)

Sanskrit. Lasso. An attribute of several Hindu and Mahayana Buddhist deities, including Mahakala (fig.), Ganesha (fig.), who uses it to combat lust and desire, and also of the tantric deity Ushnishavijaya (fig.), as well as of Phra Kaan Chai Sri, the deity responsible for sending the souls of sinners to hell. In Thai called buangbaat.

pashmina

A kind of very fine cashmere wool, which is gained from a special breed of mountain goat known as Changthangi or Pashmina Goat, which is indigenous to the Himalayas, where it dwells at high altitudes. Typical products manufactured from this very soft wool are shawls. The ultra-fine cashmere fibers are purportedly several times finer than human hair, and the best quality is allegedly gained from the goat's chin and neck. Though there are blends of cashmere wool with other materials, such as silk, the quality of all cashmere (usually labeled 100% pashmina) is reportedly far superior.

Pashupati (पशुपति)

Sanskrit. Shiva as the Lord of wild animals or lord of creatures. In South India this form of Shiva is represented with four arms, with one hand in a blessing pose, the second opened to accepting an offer, the third holding an axe, and the fourth with a small deer leaping from it.

passionflower

Name of a plant of which worldwide around 500 species exist. Most passionflowers are vines and grow in both the cooler mountains and the much hotter climate of the tropical rain forest. Passionflowers have a wide variety of colourful flowers, often perfumed and with additional sweet nectar glands on leaves, petioles and sometimes bracts. Its fruits contain a juice with an unique aromatic taste and smell. In Thai called katakrok (зá), a name with a double usage, notably for the Passiflora caerulea or Passiflora edulis, as well as for the Olax scandens, a species of plant belonging to another family. See also passionfruit, Bush Passionfruit and Leopard Lacewing.

passionfruit

Tropical fruit in Thailand belonging to a plant in the family of passionflowers and mainly cultivated in the North and Northeast. Immature fruits have a thick, bright green skin, with small light yellow to white spots, but when ripe the skin turns reddish brown. Their shape is somewhat reminiscent of that of certain tomatoes. Inside its thick rind, the passionfruit has multiple, dark-coloured seeds, that are covered with a rather slimy fruit of flesh (fig.). When still immature it is best eaten with a teaspoon and its sweet-and-sour taste perks up by adding a little salt. Its fruiting season is from October to November. In Thai called sawarot. See also Bush Passionfruit.

pata (पट)

Sanskrit. Piece of cloth. A commemorative plaque or tablet made from earthenware, stone or metal, bearing the depiction of a deity. The name derives from earlier Buddhist cloth paintings. See also votive tablet.

patak (ѡ)

Thai name for a kind of goad, a long spiked stick (fig.) used for urging cattle or elephants forward. It is akin to the shorter kho chang, the elephant hook used my mahouts (fig.).

Pata Zoo

Name of a privately owned animal zoo in Bangkok, located on the top two floors, i.e. the sixth and seventh floors, of the Pata Department Store on Phra Pinklao Road. READ ON.

Pathein (ပုသိမ်ထီး)

Burmese name for small hand-painted parasols and umbrellas, with a bamboo framework, which is named after its place of origin, i.e. Pathein, a district of Ayeyawady in Myanmar. It is an attribute of U Shwe Yo (fig.). See also rom.

Pathet Lao (ປະເທດລາວ)

Laotian. Full Lao name for Laos.

Pathology and Forensic Museum

See Siriraj Hospital Museum.

pathum (ปทุม)

Thai. Collective name for both the lotus and water lily. See also padma.

pathum unnahlohm (س)

Thai. Name for the royal emblem of King Rama I, which consists of an unnahlohm, i.e. an auspicious emblematic sign used in Buddhism and similar to the yan sign (fig.), over a background shaped in the form of a stylized lotus, a flower known as pathum.

pathumah ()

Thai name for the Siam Tulip (fig.). Also transcribed pathummah. Compare with pathum.

pathummah ()

An alternative spelling for pathumah.

Pathum Thani (ปทุมธานี)

Thai. Lotus City. Capital of a province (map) of the same name in Central Thailand, situated 46 kms North of Bangkok. The city dates back to the time of king Narai. In 1659, a group of Mon people emigrated from Mottama, fleeing war in Burma. As relatives of the Dvaravati Kingdom, they sought royal protection from the King of Ayutthaya and were allowed refuge in the area of Sahm Kohk (⤡), meaning the Three Hills. Later, in the reign of king Taksin of Thonburi, a second wave of Mon refugees arrived and, allowing them to settle  in Sahm Kohk, the then ruler permitted them to built permanent housing. Later, king Rama II allowed the refugees to expand and the initial settlement grew into a real city. Thus, on 23 August 1815, the king renamed it Meuang Prathum Thani (зҹ). In 1918, a jangwat was created and Rama VI renamed Prathum Thani to the present Pathum Thani. There still is an amphur named Sahm Kohk, located just to the North of the present-day capital city. The province is situated in the low alluvial flats of the Chao Phraya River, that also flows through the capital city. The province is very fertile, with many rice paddies, which are irrigated with water from the Chao Phraya River, as well as from the many canals that cross the area. This fertility is represented in the ears of rice, shown on the provincial seal or escutcheon. The province is also the home of the Royal Mint of Thailand (fig.). The province has seven amphur. See also Pathum Thani data file and POSTAGE STAMP.

patisotagami

Pali. To go against the current. Term used to describe the event in the Buddha's life, where he floated a bowl upstream, against the current of the river Nairanjana, in order to affirm his thought, i.e. if he was to gain Enlightenment. This episode is often explained as an allegory, which signifies that the Buddha's teaching went against all the teachings of his day.

Patjim (ปัจจิม)

See Prajim.

patka

Punjabi. An under-turban, i.e. a scarf-like single piece of cloth of about one square meter, used by Sikh boys to wrap their hair, which is knotted on top of their head. The cloth is tied over both the topknot and the head. It may also be worn by adult Sikh men beneath their turban, usually in contrasting colours, or when playing sports.

Patpong (Ѳ쾧)

Thai-Chinese. A famous entertainment district in Bangkok's Bangrak area, named after the Chinese Patpongpanit family that owns much of the quarter's property. Immigrants from Hainan, they purchased the land in the post-bellum years of WWII, when it was little more than an undeveloped plot of land on the outskirts of the city. Situated on the periphery of today's Sathorn's business district, between Silom and Suriwong road, Patpong has become a redlight district consisting of two alleys (Soi Patpong I and Soi Patpong II) with lots of nightclubs, go-go bars and a busy night bazaar. The area is frequented by mostly foreign tourists. Also transcribed Pat Pong, Phatphong and Phat Phong.

Pattalung (พัทลุง)

Thai. City of Elephants. Capital of a province as well as the name of the province itself, on the east coast of the southern Thai peninsula 840 kms from Bangkok. READ ON.

Pattani (ปัตตานี)

Capital of a province (map) of the same name situated on the east coast of the Thai peninsula in South Thailand. READ ON.

pattasihma (พัทธสีมา)

Thai. The territory or grounds belonging to a wat or temple, usually demarcated by Thai Buddhist flags called thong thammachak (fig.), often alternately with Thai National flags, known as thong chaht.

Pattaya (พัทยา)

Thai. Popular seaside resort (map) on the East coast of Thailand, in the province of Chonburi (map). Its name is possibly derived from thap phaya, the army (thap) of a phaya, referring to the troops of general Taksin (later king Taksin) that were stationed in the area (fig.).  However, other sources claim that the name comes from the southwest wind which in Thai is spelled slightly differently and named phat taya. Each year on April 19th it celebrates the Pattaya Festival, a local extension and climax of the nationwide Songkraan Festival. Also transcribed Phattaya.

Pattaya Festival

Annual festival in Pattaya on 19 April, usually celebrated as a kind of local extension and climax of the nationwide Songkraan Festival.

pattisangkhon (ปฏิสังขรณ์)

Thai. To restore old temples, Buddha images (fig.) and palaces.

Paung Daw Oo Buddhas

See Hpaung Daw U Buddhas.

pawpaw

A nickname for papaya.

peach

The well-known round juicy fruit with downy yellowish and pink skin, which is in China regarded as a symbol of longevity. The peach tree tends to flower quite early in spring, producing pinkish flowers, which are abundantly spread over its branches (fig.). Peach blossoms are considered so pretty that they frequently occur as a subject in Chinese paintings and art. See Peach of Immortality.

Peach of Immortality

In China, the peach (fig.) is a symbol of longevity. Xi Wangmu (fig.), Queen Mother of the West and mother of the Jade Emperor, has a magical tree that bears peaches of immortality. Whoever eats from them will attain everlasting life. READ ON.

peacock

Common name for a kind of large, pheasant-like bird, of which males have bright and colourful feathers. READ ON.

Peacock Pansy

Common name for a nymphalid butterfly found in South and Southeast Asia, and with the scientific name Junonia almana. On the upperside, its wings are rich orange-yellow, with buff outer margins. On the upper margin of the forewings there are short perpendicular bars, with lateral jet-black marginal lines. Both the fore- and hindwings have large ocelli, the ones on the forewings brownish and white-centred, with an outer black-buff ring, the ones on the hindwings dark orange, with a black-white outer ring and a white centre as well as a larger, off-centre black spot. On the underside, the wings are ochreous brown, with the same pattern as above, but much paler. The antennae are dark brown with brownish-orange tips, whereas the head is orange-brown, and the thorax and abdomen are blackish, with orange-brown furry colouring. In Thai, this species is known as phi seua phaensih mayura (). See also WILDLIFE PICTURES.

Peanut Worm

Common name for a species of unsegmented marine worm, with the scientific designation Sipunculus nudus. READ ON.

pedah (पेड़ा)

A kind of spiced biscuit from India, made from sweetened khoa (fig.) with flavourings, such as saffron and cardamom (fig.), and formed into balls or thick disc-like chunks. This sweet is originally from of Uttara Phrathet, i.e. Uttar Pradesh. Also transcribed peda and pedha.

Pegu (ပဲခူး)

State of the Mon before annexation by Burma. Situated in present-day lower Myanmar, in a region once called Hongsawadih. It later became part of the Pagan Empire when it expanded its power from the North. The state was ruled from Kambawzathardi, i.e. the Golden Palace (fig.), with the Bee Throne Hall (fig.), located within its compound. It is nowadays transliterated Bago and besides the old palace, has a number of interesting Buddhist temples and compounds, both ancient and new, such as Lay Myat Nar Phaya (fig.), the reclining Buddha images Shwethalyaung (fig.) built in 994 AD by Mon King Migadeikpa (fig.), and the 82 meters long Mya Tha Lyaung, constructed only in the year 2000 (fig.). According to legend, the Sakyamuni Buddha, soon after his Enlightenment, made a flying trip to Lower Burma, which at that time was still completely covered with water, apart from a mountain, of which the pinnacle emerged from the water. A hintha couple looking for a place to rest landed on this spot, but since it was too small for two birds to perch on it, the male hintha let the female bird sit on its back instead. When the Buddha saw the female hintha sitting on the back of the male bird, perched on the mountain top island, he foretold that the area would one day become the centre of a prosperous kingdom, some 15 centuries onward. When the waters finally receded, two Mon princes in 825 AD founded the town of Hanthawaddy, which derives its name from the two hintha birds, which it took as its symbol and today is found all over Bago (fig.).

Pegu Medaw (ပဲခူးမယ်တော်)

Burmese. Royal Mother Pegu. Name of a nat, whom previously was a female buffalo, who is said to have raised a prince who got lost in the wilderness. READ ON.

Peking Opera

A form of traditional Chinese theatre, that surfaced at the end of the 18th century AD. READ ON.

peng (เป้ง)

Thai for opium weight.

penjing (盆景)

Chinese. Miniature landscape. Chinese term for the art of tray scenery, the growing of miniature trees in trays (fig.), usually better known by its Japanese name bonsai (fig.). In Thai, it is known as khao mo, i.e. a form of a miniature garden arrangement with rocks and stones in potted plants. See also topiary (fig.).

Pennywort

See Asiatic Pennywort.

Pensajuba (ပဉ္စရူပ)

Burmese. Name of a composite animal from Burmese mythology. READ ON.

Peony

Generic name for plants in the genus Paeonia. READ ON.

pepper tree

See prik thai.

persimmon

A fruit from China with the scientific name Diospyros kaki (fig.) and belonging to the botanic family Ebenaceae. This orange coloured fruit resembles a tomato in size and form and has on its top four sturdy kaki leaves. There are several species, some hard others softer. The skin is hard to digest and is better left uneaten, unless when in dried form (fig.). Otherwise it is best peeled or cut in half and spooned out. In Thai called phlab, phlab jien, maphlab and takoh. The fruit is very similar in appearance to look chan, the fragrant Gold Apple, which is often referred to as the fruit of the Sandalwood Tree, and from which the Thai candy kanom saneh jan (fig.) originates.

pet daeng (ᴧ)

Thai. Red duck. Name for the Lesser Whistling Duck.

petrified wood

Name for a rare form of fossilization in which wood or an entire tree has been turned completely into stone, due to an underground process known as petrifaction, in which all the organic materials are being replaced with minerals (i.e. permineralization), whilst the original structure of the wood is being retained. A collection of this kind of fossilized wood can be observed at the Northeastern Museum of Petrified Wood and Mineral Resources, located in the Isaan province of Nakhon Ratchasima. In Thai petrified wood is known as saak deuk dam ban mai klai pen hin (ҡ֡ӺþԹ) or simply mai klai pen hin (Թ).

phaak (ҡ)

Northern Thai term for tawak.

phaan (พาน)

1. Thai. A usually golden or silver tray, cup, or bowl (khan) with a base or pedestal. It is often lotus-shaped and used as a platter, especially for presenting gifts to royalty or monks, or to donate offerings to a temple.

2. Thai. Name of a Phraya, who was governor of Nakhon Sri Wichai, i.e. presentday Nakhon Chai Sri (ê) district in Nakhon Pathom, and whom ordered the capture of a clever wild elephant with a nice character, which he wanted to make into his war elephant. Initially it could avoid being caught, but due to the ingenuity of three hunters, known as Saam Phraan, who dug a large pit on the path that the wild elephant regularly traveled on, it was eventually captured.

phaang pha theed (ҧзմ)

Thai. Northern dialect. Earthen oil lamp in northern Thai style. Its appearance differs according to the craftsmanship of the maker and age, and some are reminiscent of the dipa used in India (fig.). It is used to enlighten the environment as well as an offering, similar to a lantern or censer, by lighting it and place it decoratively in a temple or at any place of worship during important religious holidays or festivals. Besides this it is also used in daily life as replacement for an ordinary lamp, to illuminate darkness during the night. To kindle a phaang pha theed, a coiled-up, cotton cord is placed in the base of the lamp, as a wick, and lubricated with coconut oil, sesame oil, groundnut oil or tallow. Sometimes called or transcribed phaang pha teed, phaang pra theeb, phaang pra theet, phaang pha theet, phaang pha teeb or phaang pra theep. See also POSTAGE STAMP.

phaap sih sathon saeng bon phah kammayih (Ҿз͹ʧҡ)

Thai. Name for a style of painting, using fluorescent paint on black velvet, usually with a mixture of bright green, orange, yellow and blue, though sometimes only one colour is used. It is typically sold as souvenirs on street markets and classic themes include picturesque landscapes, Thai village life, and elephants, and to a lesser extend also figures from Thai or oriental mythology. These kind of paintings are surely not for everyone's taste, though they are regularly found in local style pubs and restaurants, usually under a black light (UV light) to intensify the fluorescent effects of the paint.

phab phiab (Ѻº)

Thai. To fold full-fledged. Term for a pose in which one sits in a traditional Thai style, typically on the floor, with the legs folded back to one side, the feet pointing backwards, a pose often seen in Buddhist temples, where it is considered highly ill-mannered to point the feet, the lowest and thus considered the least respectful part of the body, towards the principal Buddha image. While seated on the floor in Buddhist temples, ones feet should therefore always point away from the main Buddha image. The position is a variant of another sitting pose known as phanaeng choeng, which means to sit cross-legged and which is typically used when seated in meditation (fig.).

Pha Daeng Nang Ai (ᴧ ҧ)

Name of an epic folktale from Isaan, though thought to have originated in neighbouring Laos. READ ON.

Phad Jahmon (Ѵ)

Thai. Fly-whisk Fan. Name of a kind of kreuang khwaen, i.e. net or frame-like, stringed flower arrangements, that are used as a decoration to suspend at windows, doorways, gables, etc. This specific type is knitted in the form of a traditional fan that itself is shaped as a closed lotus bud. Though its bases is made with jasmine buds (fig.) and white dok rak (fig.), for the remainder it typically uses flowers with bright colours. This type of flower decoration is depicted on a Thai postage stamp issued in 2005 (fig.). It is also referred to as Phad Thai (Ѵ), i.e. Thai Fan, not to be confused with the dish phad thai (Ѵ), which is spelled with pho pheung (), instead of with pho phaan ().

phad thai (Ѵ)

Thai. Name of a popular dish made from flat rice noodles stirred in a wok (phad) with other ingredients. To begin with the wok is heated up adding cooking oil, an egg that needs to be scrambled with a fork and some chicken broth to soften the noodles which are put in next. Then soybeans are added, followed by dried shrimps, slivers of carrot, green shallots leaves, ground peanuts, tamarind sauce, small cubes of fried tofu and some ginger. The dish is usually served with a whole fresh shallot and a slice of a banana plant's flower bud (fig.).

phad phrik thai dam (Ѵԡ´)

Thai. Name of a dish with chunks of meet, chicken or fish, stir fried in a wok (phad), with black (dam) pepper (phrik thai), fish sauce, oyster sauce, and some other ingredients, typically also including sliced onion and bell peppers, and served over rice. According to the choice of meet used, it is referred to by first mentioning the name of the meet, e.g. moo phad phrik thai dam when pork is used, pla phad phrik thai dam if fish is used, etc.

phae ()

Thai for ‘goat, while a ‘sheep is called kae. The goat, or alternatively the sheep (fig.), is the eight animal sign of the Chinese zodiac (fig.). People born in the Year of the Goat are said to be pretty calm individuals and nurturers, that enjoy taking care of other people. The goat features on many a Thai postage stamp, including the Songkraan Day Postage Stamp, issued in 1991 (fig.), and the Zodiac Year of the Goat Postage Stamp, issued in 2003 (fig.).

Phae Meuang Phi (ͧ)

Thai. Ghost Land Grove, sometimes translated as Mysterious Land Grove. Name of a 167 rai or 66 acres forest park, in Thai called wanna uthayaan, located in Phrae province. The area consists of cliffs and columns, formed by subsidence and erosion of the soil, leaving the crust of harder cements in stunning shapes, some resembling giant mushrooms. According to legend, in the past no human nor animal dared to pass through the area, as it was considered a land of ghosts (phi). Though, one day a villager did pass by and discovered this natural treasure and in 1981 the area was declared a national park. Today, the park features a walking trail and several viewpoints (fig.). Phae Meuang Phi is somewhat similar to the Lalu soil formations in Sa Kaeo (fig.).

phaen duang (蹴ǧ)

Thai. Astrological sheet. Name for a small gold coloured metal sheet with astrological yan signs distributed at temples or at certain ceremonies and intended to enhance good fortune. One has to write ones name and date of birth on it (using a metal pin or nail) and then deposit it in a large box in the temple. Afterward they are melted and the cast into a Buddha image, thus allowing everyone to contribute in the making of a new Buddha image. Also known as phaen duang yan maha pohkkasap, what translates as astrological yan sheet for great wealth and if without the astrological signs also referred to as phaen thong kham.

phaen kra-yo (蹡)

Thai. Kra-yo sheet. Name for rice wrappers, very thin sheets of a dough-like pastry, which are used as wrappers for fresh spring rolls, known in Thai as popiya sod (fig.) or popiya Vietnam. The sheets are created by daubing the liquid mixture onto a piece of linen cloth, which is stretched over a steaming kettle filled with boiling water and covered off by a coin-shaped lid, allowing the dough to become solid without drying out. After this short process, the soft sheets are carefully taken off with a very thin spatula (fig.) and sun-dried on large, grid-like frames made from bamboo (fig.). The sheets are round and thin, and look somewhat like pancakes, though almost transparent and white in colour.

phaen thong kham (蹷ͧ)

Thai. Gold sheet. Name for a small gold coloured metal sheet distributed at temples or at certain ceremonies and intended to enhance good fortune. One has to write ones name and date of birth on it (using a metal pin or nail) and then deposit it in a large box in the temple. Sometimes the metal sheets have the shape of the leaves of a bodhi tree (fig.) and are symbolically hung on a imitation tree at the temple. Afterward they are melted and the cast into the image of an idol or a Buddha image, thus allowing everyone to contribute in its making as a form of tamboon. See also phaen duang.

phaet sawan (ᾷä)

Thai. Physician of heaven. A designation of Thanwantari, one of the avatars of Phra Narai, who is considered to be a health deity.

phah pah (ผ้าป่า)

Thai. The robes offered to monks during a thod phah pah ceremony.

phah thung (ผ้าถุง)

Thai. A simple sarong-like skirt somewhat like a tube skirt.

Phahurat Manihmai (พาหุรัดมณีมัย)

Thai. The first daughter of King Chulalongkorn with his consort Queen Saowapha Phongsri. She was born on 19 December 1878, at Phra Rachawang in Bangkok, but with poor health throughout her childhood, the princess died at the untimely age of eight, on 27 August 1887. She is portrayed on one of a rare set of unmarked postage stamps of the Royal Family issued in circa 1893 (fig.).

phai (ไผ่)

Thai name for bamboo. Also mai phai.

phai nahm tao ()

Thai. Calabash bamboo. Name for Bambusa ventricosa, a species of bamboo with bulbous culms (fig.), that won it the nickname Buddha's Belly Bamboo, referring to the obese Chinese Smiling Buddha (fig.), rather than the historical Buddha. This type of bamboo is native to Guangdong province in China, but is widely cultivated in subtropical regions around the world for its ornamental features, for which it is also used in bonsai. The Thai designation is also based on the stem's bulbous shape, which is considered as redolent of a bottle gourd, called nahm tao in Thai. In Vietnamese, it is known as trúc đùi gà (fig.).

phakah krong (ҡͧ)

Thai generic name of a flowering plant, with the botanical name Lantana camara, and found in many tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. It produces clusters of small flowers with salver-form corollas, which vary in colour depending on the subspecies. The existing array includes the Pink Caprice Lantana, with pink to lilac and white flowers, each with a yellow core; the Spanish Flag, with red and yellow flowers (fig.), like the colours of the national flag of Spain; Cloth of Gold, with clusters of yellow flowers (fig.); Lantana camara blanca, with white flowers with a yellow centre; etc. In the wild, this species is very invasive, but it is also often found as an ornamental plant in gardens, and its flowers are highly favoured by a variety of butterflies.

phak bung (ผักบุ้ง)

Thai for morning glory, swamp cabbage and water spinach, i.e. a vine-like plant (fig.), that grows plentifully in usually shallow, standing water, such as ponds, ditches and roadside canals. READ ON.

phak bung fai daeng (ผักบุ้งไฟแดง)

Thai. Red fire water spinach. See phak bung.

phak bung farang (ผักบุ้งฝรั่ง)

See phak bung.

phak bung loi fah (ผักบุ้งลอยฟ้า)

Thai. Sky-floating water spinach. The morning glory flying vegetable. See phak bung.

phak chih (ѡ)

Thai for coriander, an aromatic plant which seeds, known in Thai as malet phak chih (fig.), are used in cuisine for flavouring.

phak kahd khao (ѡҴ)

Thai. A Chinese cabbage, with the scientific name Brassica rapa, subsp. pekinensis, and in English known as napa cabbage or celery cabbage, yet it is in general simply referred to as Chinese cabbage, although that name is also used for many other varieties. It is widely used in East Asian cuisine. The somewhat rutted, elongated leaves, which are light green with white petioles, sit tightly packed together in the cylindrical head, with the tip of the leaves growing toward each other. In Mandarin, it is called da bai cai (大白菜), which means large white vegetable, a term used to differentiate it from certain types of phak kwahng tung, which are called bai cai (白菜) or xiao bai cai (小白菜), which means white vegetable and small white vegetable respectively.

phak kahd khao plih (ѡҴǻ)

Thai. A Chinese cabbage, similar to phak kahd khao, but of a darker green colour, softer and less rutted leaves, that are packed less compact together, and with the tip of the leaves growing outward, rather than toward each other. Despite these differences, it also is commonly referred to as napa cabbage and generally as Chinese cabbage, but has also been given the name Won Bok. It scientific designation is Brassica rapa, subsp. pekinensis, var. cephalata.

phak kahd khao kwahng tung (ѡҴǡҧ)

Thai. A Chinese cabbage, with the scientific name Brassica chinensis. It has broad green leaves and white petioles or stems, and is also known as snow cabbage, bok choy (͡), and in Thai additionally as phak choy (ѡ). There is smaller version of the same vegetable, which is referred to as Shanghai bok choy, baby bok choy or mini bok choy, and in Thai also as baby phak choy (຺ѡ) or mini phak choy (ԹԼѡ). This smaller version is simply less-mature and the stems might still be green. In Mandarin, it is called bai cai (白菜), or xiao bai cai (小白菜), which means white vegetable and small white vegetable respectively, with the latter term being used to differentiate it from phak kahd khao, which is called da bai cai (大白菜), meaning large white vegetable. See also phak kwahng tung.

phak kahd kiyaw kwahng tung (ѡҴǡҧ)

Thai. A Chinese cabbage, with the scientific name Brassica chinensis, with broad green leaves and green petioles. In Mandarin, it is called bai cai (白菜), or xiao bai cai (小白菜), which means white vegetable and small white vegetable respectively, with the latter term being used to differentiate it from phak kahd khao, which is called da bai cai (大白菜), meaning large white vegetable. See also phak kwahng tung.

phak kwahng tung (ѡҧ)

Thai. Guangdong (Kwangtung) vegetable, usually referred to as Cantonese vegetable. READ ON.

phak salad kos (ѡѴ)

Thai name for Romaine Lettuce or Cos Lettuce, a kind of lettuce that is tolerant of heat, which sets it apart from most other lettuces. It has the botanical name Lactuca sativa var. longifolia, referring to its long, sturdy leaves, that sit on thick, firm ribs. In the West, it is best known for its use as the main ingredient in Caesar salads. In Thailand, it is eaten fresh in salads, and an ingredient in certain dishes, such as phad phrik kaeng (Ѵԡᡧ), kaeng jeud (ᡧ״), and phad phak ruam mit (ѴѡԵ). In addition, it is sometimes used as a replacement for kha-nah, as well as different types of phak kwahng tung.

phak siang farang (ѡ¹)

Thai. Foreign thorny plant. Plant with spider-shaped, white to pink-purple flowers (fig.), native to southern South America and with the botanical name Cleome hassleriana. It is an annual plant that grows to a height of 1,5 meter and has spirally arranged palmate leaves. The flowers have four petals and six long stamens. In Thailand it is commonly cultivated as an ornamental plant (fig.). In English, it is known as Spider Flower and Spider Plant. See also Spider Lily (fig.).

phak thod yod (ผักทอดยอด)

Thai. Peak fried vegetable. An additional name for phak bung, when stir-fried (thod) over a gas flame turned all the way up to its highest point (yod).

Pha Lak Pha Lam (ພະລັກພະລາມ)

Laotian. Name of the local adaptation in Laos of the Indian epic Ramayana. READ ON.

Pha Lam Sadok (ຊາດົກ)

Laotian. The Chadok of Phra Ram or the Jataka of Rama. Name in Laos of the local version of the Indian epic Ramayana, i.e. the Laotian counterpart of the Thai Ramakien, and also known locally as Pha Lak Pha Lam. Pronounced Pha Laam Sadok and sometimes transcribed Pha Lam Xadok.

Phali ()

See Bali.

phanaeng choeng (Ᾱԧ)

Thai term that means to sit cross-legged. The pose is typically used when seated, usually on the floor, in meditation (fig.) and is thus represented in most sitting Buddha images (fig.), a style referred to as lotus position. See also phab phiab and Wat Phanan Choeng.

phanak phing (ѡԧ)

Thai for a backrest, the squab of a seat, like those typically used by monks in Buddhist temples and which are commonly shaped in the form of a bai sema (fig.). See also tammaht  and reua khem.

Phan But Sri Thep (ѹص෾)

Thai. The name and title of a lower palace official with the duty of guarding the outer image hall. The title is one rank below that of Khun Chinnarat. The title literally translates as thousand children of angels.

Phan Dinh Phung (Phan Đình Phùng)

Vietnamese. Name of a revolutionary who led rebel armies against French colonial forces in Vietnam in the 19th century. READ ON.

phang (พัง)

Thai for a female elephant. See also Asian Elephant, phlaay and sihdoh.

Phang Nga (ѧ)

Thai. Name of a river, a provincial capital, as well as of a province on the west coast of the South Thai peninsula, along the Andaman Sea. READ ON.

phangphon (ѧ͹)

Thai for mongoose.

phaniad (เพนียด)

Thai. Elephant kraal. A stockade or palisade formerly used to round-up wild elephants (fig.). It consists of a huge fence of wooden -usually teak- logs planted in the ground at an angle to keep the elephants in.

phanom ()

1. Thai-Khmer. Mountain. A term often used as a name for a temple, sanctuary or sacred place, as in Prasat Phanom Rung. It also often occurs in Thai place names, e.g. Nakhon Phanom and Wat Phrathat Phanom Woramahawihaan (fig.).

2. Thai. A synonym for phranommeua.

phanom mahk (ҡ)

Thai. Betel mountain. Architectural term, used for a cone-shaped decorative element, reminiscent of the egg or pear-shaped betel arrangement known as phum mahk (fig.), as well as of the tallest container of a betel-set (fig.), hence the name. They are typically used in pairs and are often found at the entrance of a sanctuary or at the foot of an altar, etc. They are often, though not always, made in (or with elements of) a golden or silver colour and are typically placed on a phaan, which in turn may be standing on a cushion. Smaller versions, folded from a banana-leaf and topped with a small flower or some other ornament, are referred to as krathong dokmai (fig.) and are typically used to accompany toob thian phae offerings (fig.). See also phanom and mahk.

Phanon Mareuk (ҹĤ)

Thai. Mythological animal from the Ramakien, living in the Himaphan forest. It is half monkey (phanon) and half deer (mareuk), with the agility of a deer and the power to run faster than any normal deer, but able to fully utilize its functional monkey hands for grabbing objects and feeding. It also has an exceptional sense of hearing and, like most monkeys prefers eating bananas and coconuts. In art it is usually depicted with a greenish complexion. See also Singh Phanon.

Phan Thai Nora Singh (ѹ¹ԧ)

Name of the coxswain (phan thai), who in the Ayutthaya Period was in charge of the navigation of the Ekkachai (͡) Royal Barge. READ ON.

phanuat (Ǫ)

Thai-rajasap. To ordain, to tonsure or enter the Buddhist priesthood. See also buat, buatnaag, banpacha and upasombot.

Phanurangsih Sawaangwong (ҳѧ ҧǧ)

See Bhanurangsi Savangwongse.

Phap Van (Pháp Vân)

Vietnamese. Vietnamese-Buddhist goddess of the clouds. READ ON.

Phasa (ภาษา)

Thai for language.

Phasa Isaan (ภาษาอีสาน)

Thai. Northeastern Thai. Dialect spoken in Isaan or Northeast Thailand, a region more or less coinciding with the Korat Plateau covering an area from Nakhon Ratchasima to the borders of Laos and Cambodia. See also Phasa Thong Thin. Also called Phasa Thai-Lao and Phasa Lao.

Phasa Klahng (ภาษากลาง)

Thai. Central Thai. The language spoken in Central Thailand as well as the official vernacular used in all other parts of Thailand.

Phasa Neua (ภาษาเหนือ)

Thai. Northern Thai. Dialect spoken in North Thailand, from Tak to the borders with Burma and Laos. See also Phasa Thong Thin. Also kham meuang and Phasa Phaak Neua.

Phasa Pak Tai (ภาษาปักษ์ใต้)

Thai. Southern Thai. Dialect spoken in South Thailand, from Chumphon to the border of Malaysia. See also Phasa Thong Thin.

Phasa Phaak Neua (ภาษาภาคเหนือ)

See phasa neua.

Phasa Pheun Meuang (ภาษาพื้นเมือง)

Thai. Native language. A term used for dialects. See Phasa Thong Thin.

Phasa Sanskrit (ภาษาสันสกฤต)

Thai for Sanskrit.

Phasa Thai (ภาษาไทย)

The Thai language, Thai. The official language of Thailand and mother tongue of the Thai people. It belongs to the Tai group of the Tai-Kadai language family which are thought to have originated in what is now southern China and probably linked to the Austroasiatic, Austronesian or Sino-Tibetan language families. Thai is, like Chinese, a tonal and analytic language with a complex orthography, relational markers and a distinctive phonology. Thai linguists recognize four dialects of which Central Thai is considered the official vernacular. The other dialects are Northern Thai, Northeastern Thai, and Southern Thai. See also Phasa Thong Thin. MORE ON THIS.

Phasa Thong Thin (ภาษาท้องถิ่น)

Thai. Dialect. In Thailand linguists recognize four dialects of which Central Thai (Phasa Klahng) is considered the official vernacular. The remaining three dialects are Northern Thai (Phasa Neua or kham meuang), Northeastern Thai (Phasa Isaan), and Southern Thai (Phasa Pak Tai). They are spoken in the areas that more or less coincide with the accepted partition of the country in regions (fig.), with East and West Thailand included with Central Thailand. All dialects belong to the Thai-Kadai language group and are strongly related to Laotian, Northern Thai, and Thai Lu, languages spoken in Laos; Shan and North Thai, spoken in North Myanmar; Nung and Tho, spoken in Northwest Vietnam; Ahom, spoken in Assam; and Zhuang and Thai Lu, spoken in parts of South China.

phasom set ()

Thai. Mixed [and] done or completely mixed. Name for the Asian Tapir. In short also called som set, which could be translated as done well matched. It is also known by the shortened name somset ().

Phatcharakitiyapha (ѪáԵ)

Thai. Daughter of Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn and Princess Sohmsawalih, and the first granddaughter of King Bhumipon Adunyadet and Queen Sirikit Kitthiyagon. She was born on Thursday 7 December 1978. She graduated as a Doctor in the Science of Law at Cornell University in the United States of America, and in 2012, she was commemorated on a Thai postage stamp in her function as chairperson of the United Nations' 21st session of the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (fig.). Her personal flag consists of an orange field, i.e. the colour that correspondents with her birthday according to the sih prajam wan system, with the initials Ph. () in orange and Ph. () in yellow, bordered with white (fig.). Her name is often transliterated Bajrakitiyabha.

Phat Phong (Ѳ쾧)

See Patpong.

Phattaya (พัทยา)

See Pattaya.

phat taya (พัทธยา)

Thai. The southwest wind. See also Pattaya.

Phaulkon

See Constantine Phaulkon.

phaya (พญา)

Thai for king or potentate. Compare with the Burmese term Phaya.

Phaya (ဘုရား)

Burmese for the Buddha or a Buddha image, as well as for a stupa or pagoda. The term can also be used as a respectful way to address monks, royalty, or deity. Hence, the word is similar in use to the Thai word Phra and is likely linguistically related to the Thai word phaya.

Phaya Amat (ဘုရားအမှတ်)

Burmese. Buddha's Mark or Pagoda of the Mark. Name of a brick Buddhist temple in Bagan. READ ON.

Phayak Kraison (Ѥ)

Thai-Pali name of a mythological creature from Himaphan forest, that has the body of a lion and the head, and often the stripes, of a Bengal tiger. Sometimes transcribed Payak Kraisorn.

phaya krarok dam (ҡ͡)

Thai. Black squirrel king. Name for the Black Giant Squirrel.

phayanaag (พญานาค)

Thai. King of snakes. See also phaya and naag.

Phayao (พะเยา)

Province (map) and its capital city, situated in Northern Thailand at 691 kms North of Bangkok and near Kwahn Phayao (ҹ), a huge freshwater lake (fig.) from which small shrimps are caught to be used in the local specialty kung ten (fig.), a dish of live shrimps mixed with several spices. Phayao is an ancient city from the former Lan Na kingdom, founded around the time of king Ngam Meuang. Later, Phayao was made an amphur of Chiang Rai province, but on 28 August 1977, its status was elevated to that of a province in its own right, at that time becoming the nation's 72nd jangwat. Today it has seven amphur and two king amphur. Originally, the city and area were named Phu Kaam Yao (١), meaning sensual (or erotically) stretched mountain, a name that refers to a long, stretched out mountain, located opposite of the town's vast lake and of which the ridge has an outline reminiscent of that of a reclining woman (fig.). Phu Kaam Yao was also referred to by the shorter name Pha Yao (), most likely for easier pronunciation, which over time evolved into Phayao (), the same word with a different spelling, still in use today. See also Phayao data file.

Phayap (พายัพ)

The Northwest of Thailand. Generally understood to be the West of North Thailand (the province of Mae Hong Son), rather than the North of West Thailand (the province of Kanchanaburi). It is the direction of the compass guarded by the lokapala Vayu. See also Udon, Isaan, Taksin, Ahkney, Horadih, Prajim and Burapah.

Phayathai ()

1. Thai. Name of a khet in Bangkok. Also spelled Phaya Thai and Phyathai.

2. Thai. Name of a former palace, located in Bangkok, which was built in 1909 by King Chulalongkorn, in order to do some farming and to organize the Royal Ploughing Ceremony. After his death in 1910, it served as a residence for Queen Saowapha, his consort and the mother of King Rama VI. The complex consists of several buildings and halls, including Phimaan Chakri (ҹѡ), Sri Sut Niwaht (ط), Udom Wanaphon (شǹó), the separate Thewarat Sapharom hall (Ҫ), etc. Today, the complex belongs to the Ministry of Defence and is part of the military Phra Mongkutklao Hospital, which is named after the sixth monarch from the Chakri Dynasty. Also spelled Phyathai and Phaya Thai.

Phaya Thani (ҵҹ)

Thai. Name of a cannon with a length of 3 wah (6 meters) which stands in front of the Thai Ministry of Defense in Bangkok. This large cannon was confiscated by royal troops after the 1785 rebellion of Pattani against Rattanakosin, and offered to king Rama I.

Phaya Thonzu (ဘုရားသုံးဆူ)

Burmese. Three Deities or Three Pagodas, and sometimes translated as Temple of Three Buddhas. Name of a Buddhist temple in Bagan. READ ON.

Phayre's Langur

See Phayre's Leaf Monkey.

Phayre's Leaf Monkey

Common name for a species of Leaf Monkey with the scientific name Trachypithecus phayrei and found in South, East and Southeast Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam. Also called Presbytis phayrei and Phayre's Langur, named after and commemorating Sir Arthur Phayre, a naturalist and the first Commissioner of British Burma. They have grey fur, a dark face with white circles around the eyes and white skin at the mouth, and a long tail. It is similar to the Dusky Leaf Monkey (fig.), but has a lighter fur. Like other Leaf Monkeys, Phayre's Leaf Monkeys are herbivorous, feeding primarily on leaves, fruits and buds, and hence spend most of their lives in the canopy of trees. In Thai it is called kaang waen thin neua. See also Grey Langur (fig.), i.e. a species of Leaf Monkey previously considered a subspecies of the Phayre's Langur.

phayu ()

Thai for storm, a word that derives from Vayu (fig.), the name of the Vedic god of the wind and air. See also phayuhayahtrah and nahm thuam.

phayuhayahtrah (พยุหยา)

Thai-rajasap term that derives from Pali and means to march or move in force, and of a king to proceed in state or to move [an army]. The term is used in the Royal Barge Procession, for one. See also phayu.

Pheasant-tailed Jacana

Common name for a wader, with the scientific designation Hydrophasianus chirurgus. Both sexes are similar, but with a body size of up to 31 centimeter females are larger than males, which grow up to around 27 centimeter. In the breeding season its body is blackish-brown, with white head and foreneck, and a yellowish-buff hindneck. In the middle of the neck, along both sides, runs a black line that divides the colours of the fore and hindneck, and which converge on top of the crown. The short wings are mostly white, and it has a long, blackish tail. The non-breeding plumage, this bird has a white body with dark brown upperparts. The long, blackish tail has disappeared and the black line that runs along both sides of the neck has expanded in width and length, and instead of converging on top of the crown, it now leads to a black eyestripe above, whereas below it now converges, creating a black breastband. The crown is black, the hindneck is a darker yellowish-buff and now extends into a supercilium. The head underneath the black eyestripe, as well as the foreneck are white. Like many waders, it has long legs, toes, and nails, allowing this bird to walk on floating water foliage. They are good swimmers and divers. Their favorite foods are insects, small water animals and water plants. They can be found in swamps or lakes in most parts of the Thailand, except in the West. In Thai, the Pheasant-tailed Jacana is called nok ih-jaew (). In 1997, this bird was depicted on the first stamp of a set of four Thai postage stamps featuring waterfowl (fig.).

pheh-kah ()

Thai name for the Indian Trumpet Tree.

phen ()

Thai for the hour between eleven and twelve in the morning, when Buddhist monks and novices have their last meal of the day.

pherie (เภรี)

Thai. A kind of drum, more specifically a war drum.

Phetburi (เพชรบุรี)

Another pronunciation for Phetchaburi.

Phetchabun (เพชรบูรณ์)

Thai. Full Diamond. Province (map) and its capital city of the same name in North Thailand, 346 kms to the North of Bangkok. The name Petcha, which means Diamond, refers to the natural resources of the land, as well as to the fact that at some point in time, in the amphur Lom Sak, quartz was quarried, whereas the second word bun (ó), comes from the word burana (ó) or purana (ó), which itself derives from the Sanskrit word puurna (पूर्ण) and means full. The province lies in the broad fertile river valley of the Pa Sak River, flanked both in the East and West by the Phetchabun Mountain Range. The province of Phetchabun was established through administrative reforms, that took place during the beginning of the 20th century, and in which several districts and monthon were merged, whilst others were dissolved. The region is known for the communist rebels of the PLAT (People's Liberation Army of Thailand), who hid in the region's mountains in the seventies and eighties, and for the production of tamarind and tobacco. The province has eleven amphur. See also Phetchabun data file and Purana.

Phetchaburi (เพชรบุรี)

Capital city of the jangwat Phetchaburi, as well as a province (map) of the same name, located on the Gulf of Thailand. The city has a population of approximately 35,000 and is situated 123 kms to the South of Bangkok in West Thailand. Being a former royal city, Phetchaburi has an old history, dating back to the Mon of the 8th century. Later, the Khmer settled here, bringing some architectural influence to the city, which is still visible today in the prang of Wat Kamphaeng Laeng. In 1860, king Mongkut had a palace built in the vicinity of the city, complete with an adjacent tower for his astronomical observations. The city's and province's places of interest include the underground temple cave Tham Khao Luang (fig.) which houses a Buddhist shrine illuminated by falling sunlight (fig.), Tham Khao Yoi cave (fig.) and Khao Wang (fig.), the palace mountain with the remains of king Mongkut's summer palace (fig.) and a beautiful view over the area (fig.). The province has several beach resorts, including the popular resort of Cha-am, and Kaeng Krajahn National Park, with about 2,919 kms² the largest in the country covering almost half the area of the province and with wildlife that includes Dusky Leaf Monkeys (fig.). The province has eight amphur. The province is also called Phetburi and the city is often referred to as Meuang Phet. See also Phetchaburi data file.

Phetcharatana Rachasuda (ྪѵҪش)

Thai. Name of the daughter and only child of King Rama VI. She was born on 24 November 1925, just one day before her father's demise. She has served as a royal patroness to over thirty institutions and organizations, including in the area of education, public health, and scouting, as well as of activities of the territorial defence volunteers and other charitable organizations. The Princess' last name is Sirisohpha Phannawadee (ҾѳǴ), thought her full name is often transliterated Bejaratana Rajasuda Sirisobhabannavadi. To mark het 80th anniversary in 2005, Thailand Post issued a commemorative stamp with her portrait (fig.), and in 2009, her seventh birthday circle was commemorated with a Thai postage stamp that features her portrait (fig.). Being born on a Tuesday, the princess' personal flag consists of a pink field, the colour of her birthday (see sih prajam wan), with the initials  Ph. R. (..), underneath a crown and a yan sign. She passed away on 27 July 2011 at the age of 85, and cremation rites took place on 9 April 2012 in a crematorium, with the combined shades of gold and pink, representing the colour of her birthday and the standard colour for a royal funeral pyre.

pheuak (เผือก)

1. Thai for the taro plant, a tropical plant native to Southeast Asia and thought to have originated in the Indo-Malayan region. It belongs to the Araceae family, which members are in Thai generally referred to as known bon. It has a tuberous root, which is used as a vegetable and a ingredient in other food, e.g. as an ice cream flavor, for one. There are several species, but the most common cultivated species is known by the botanical name Colocasia esculenta, and also has several varieties. Its bulbous root with a brownish pink colour is reminiscent of a White Elephant, which in Thai is accordingly called Chang Pheuak (fig.). Above the ground, the taro plant has a strong stem with a single green, rather large, heart-shaped leaf, which like the leaf of the lotus plant, repels water. Its surface is covered with tiny, microscopic structures, that hold aloft any droplets of water that fall onto it, keeping the surface almost entirely dry, yet carrying away all the dust and bacteria. These leaves are in fact self-cleaning and its surface structure has been imitated in certain technical applications. In horizontal growing leaves, up to 2 percent of the water that falls on the surface may remain there and are drawn together. The stagnant drops of rainwater that gather on the leaves are a convenient drinking source for birds and insects (fig.).

2. Thai term used for albinism, especially used with albino animals, as in chang pheuak, kwai pheuak, ngu hao pheuak, Thai names for a White Elephant (fig.), albino water buffalo and an albino Monocellate Cobra (fig.), respectively.

3. Thai term used for leucism, a condition at first sight similar to and often confused with albinism, but which is characterized by reduced pigmentation (fig.). The main difference is that albinos typically have red eyes, due to the underlying blood vessels showing through, whereas leucistic animals have normally coloured eyes. The condition can also be partial and is as such referred to by the term pied, i.e. particoloured, which in animals is often black and white, e.g. Pied Imperial-pigeon (fig.).

pheung ()

Thai for bee.

phi (ผี)

Thai for ghost, spirit, spook, devil, jinn, genie, demon and apparition.

Phibun Songkram (พิบูล สงคราม)

Field Marshall and Prime Minister during WW II. READ ON.

Phichai Dahb Hak (พิชัยดาบหัก)

Thai. Victory with a broken sword or victory by slashing swords. Nickname of a local hero from Uttaradit. Born in 1741 AD at Ban Huay Kha and named simply Joy (), he later in life was renamed Thong Dih (ͧ) and became Phraya, a military leader and influential partner of Phraya Tak, the later king Taksin. In 1773 AD, Posupala (Bo Supia), the Burmese Commander-in-Chief, led his troops from Vientiane to capture Phichai, a local city South of Uttaradit. Consequently, Chao Phraya Surasih () and Phraya Thong Dih led the Siamese troops to defend the city against the enemy. In the courageous hand-to-hand fight that followed at Wat Aka, Phraya Thong Dih used dual swords as his weapons, and is said to have fought the enemy by slashing the two swords so hard, that one of them actually broke (fig.). In spite of this, he kept fighting vigorously, until he and his men drove the enemy away and succeeded in averting the Burmese invasion. Following the event, he was honoured with the name Phichai Dahb Hak, after the broken sword and the city he had defended. His statue and a small memorial museum in front of Uttaradit's Provincial Hall commemorate this local hero (fig.).

Phichit (พิจิตร)

Thai. Beautiful city. Name of the provincial capital of a jangwat (map) of the same name in North Thailand situated, 344 kilometeres to the North of Bangkok. According to legend, the city was founded by Phaya Kotabong (⤵úͧ) during the period when the Khmer were in power, though it is uncertain on which date precise, yet some sources mention the year 1058 AD. The word kot (⤵) means lineage and bong (ͧ) refers to a kind of tiger, but is also a Khmer equivalent for the Thai word phih (), meaning elder brother, whereas the a in between those words is merely used as a connection vowel to ease pronunciation. The name Kotabong could hence be interpreted as the elder brother of the tiger lineage, implying that he was probably a descendant of a heroic family or recognized as a person with a certain brave background. In the Sukhothai period the city was called Meuang Sra Luang (ͧǧ), meaning City of the Royal Pond. During this period it was an important metropolis and a front for Sukhothai. Later, in the Ayutthaya Period, King Trailohkanat (1448-1488 AD) of the Suphannaphumi Dynasty, changed the city's name into Meuang Ohkaburi (ͧͦ), literally meaning Inundated City or Flooded City, most likely referring to the area's low and fertile river plains. Phichit is the birthplace of the Ayutthayan king Somdet Phra Sanphet VIII (1703-1708 AD) of the Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty, who was nicknamed Phra Chao Seua, meaning the Tiger King, a title reminiscent of that of the city's legendary founder. The province is also the hometown of the story Kraithong about the crocodile Chalawan, and has nine amphur and three king amphur. See also Phichit data file.

Phichitmaan (พิชิตมาร)

Thai. Conqueror of Mara or conqueror of demons. A name for the Buddha.

Phikhanesawora

See Phra Phikhanesawora.

phikun (พิกุล)

Thai name for the Star Flower Tree.

Philatelic Museum

Museum on the 2nd floor of Bangkok's northern Metropolitan Postal Bureau, in Saphan Kwai district. READ ON.

Philippine Violet

Common name for a perennial shrubbery plant, with the botanical name Barleria lupulina. It grows up to 90 centimeter tall and is popular for its medicinal value. The root has anti-inflammatory qualities and is used for treatment of insect bites, especially those from centipedes, whereas the leaves are used fresh to treat herpes simplex. It has reddish-purple branches, narrow, purplish dark green leaves, and tubular, bright yellow flowers, that bloom in clusters from a purplish-brown strobilus (fig.). Also commonly known as Hophead and Porcupine Flower, and in Thai called salet phang phon (Ŵѧ͹).

Phimai (พิมาย)

1. See Prasat Hin Phimai.

2. A small city situated about 60 kms Northeast of Nakhon Ratchasima in the vicinity of the remains of Prasat Hin Phimai (fig.).

phin (Գ)

 Thai. Name a traditional, three-stringed, plucked instrument, that originated in Isaan, and which is also found in neighbouring Laos. It has a pear-shaped body and a neck, that typically ends in an upward bent headstock, which is usually shaped in the form of kanok-flame or a naga-head. The neck has a fingerboard over which the three metal strings run, which are usually plucked using a pick. This lute-like instrument is somewhat reminiscent of the four-stringed krajab pih (fig.) and it features in the logo of the Revenue Department (fig.).

Phiphek (พิเภก)

Character from the Ramakien. He was the chief astrologer from Longka and a younger brother of Totsakan, his parents being Thao Lastian (ลัสเตียน), i.e. Asuraphong (อสุรพงศ์), and Nang Ratchada (Ѫ). He was driven from the city and thus offered his allegiance to Phra Ram (fig.). After the latter eventually defeated Totsakan, he appointed Phiphek as the king of Longka. He is portrayed with a green complexion (fig.), eyes of which the upper eyelid partly covers the eyeball and which are known as tah jorakae (fig.), and characteristically wears a golden crown with a bulbous tip, that is usually decorated with pieces of blue mirrored glass. Hence, he is very similar to Mahothon, another demon character from the Ramakien, who also has a green complexion and equally wears a golden crown with a bulbous tip, but which has a somewhat shorter and more bulging point, and which is decorated with pieces of dark green mirrored glass (fig.). In addition, the later has wide open eyes called tah phlohng (fig.), rather than tah jorakae. In the Ramayana, Phiphek is known as Vibhishana or Bibhishan.

Phi Phi Islands

Name of an archipelago of six isles, including the well-known Koh Phi Phi Don and Koh Phi Phi Le, i.e. the two foremost islands. READ ON.

phiphop ()

Thai for world or earth. Also lohk.

phi phraai (վ)

Thai. Name of a very violent class of demons, primarily believed to be a kind of water ghosts or water spirits. See also Hohng Phraai.

Phirap (Ҿ)

Thai. Name of an asura or yak in the story Ramakien, who is described as very powerful and mischievous. He was expelled by Idsuan and condemned to live only at Mount Atsakhan, where he later created his own garden and planted a fruit tree known as Pawatong. One day, when Phirat was absent, Rama (fig.), Phra Lak (fig.), and Sida entered his garden to rest and picked some fruit from the tree. Upon discovering this, Phirap's servants tried to expel the trio, but Rama put up a fight and killed many of the servants. When Phirap returned and discovered what had happened, he became very angry, but upon seeing the beauty of Sida, he immediately fell in love. Using a magic spell, Phirap then created a darkness, which he used as a cover to abduct Sida. However, Rama shot an arrow to lift the darkness, and subsequently shot and killed Phirap, with a powerful arrow called Phrommat, thus freeing Sida in the process. Phirap is often referred to as Phra Phirap, whilst his name should be pronounced Phiraap. In khon, he is usually portrayed with a deep purple complexion and wearing a golden crown with upward, elongated and pointed ear-covers, though he may also be depicted wearing a kabang (fig.), i.e. a diadem-like crown (fig.). He is also known as Phairaap (Ҿ), and in the past as Phairawa () or Pharahwa (). See also LIST OF RAMAKIEN CHARACTERS.

Phisadet Ratchani (പ Ѫ)

Thai. Name of a prince of the late Rattanakosin Period, who was born on 1 January 1920 as the son of Prince Phitayalongkorn. READ ON.

phi seua (ผีเสื้อ)

1. Thai for butterfly. Many species are endemic to Thailand, both daytime and nocturnal butterflies (fig.). Nocturnal butterflies or moths are called phi seua klahng keun in Thai, which can be translated as night butterfly or moth. See also phi seua kathoey.

2. Thai. Butterfly. Architectural term for a triangular decorative element on a roof corner, usually with temple buildings. Its symmetric design is reminiscent of a butterfly, hence the name.

3. Thai term for an ogre, a class of male and female demons, as in phi seua samut. They are usually depicted holding, swaying or carrying a club, in Thai known as a krabong.

phi seua jon kah laai jud (ผีเสื้อจรกาลายจุด)

Thai name for the Spotted Black Crow.

phi seua kathoey (͡)

Thai name for gynandromorphic butterflies, i.e. butterflies of any given species that have characteristics of both the male and the female. READ ON.

phi seua klahng keun (͡ҧ׹)

Thai for moth, literally it translates night butterfly. Thailand has many species of moth, including some very large ones, such as the Giant Uranid Moth and the Atlas Moth. Many moths have interesting wing markings, such as eyespots, known as ocelli, reminiscent of owl's eyes, whilst other species are masters in camouflage, camouflaging themselves to look like a dead leaf, or by curling up to resemble a twig. Some smaller moths camouflage as bird droppings and yet others have an upward bent abdomen (fig.).

phi seua klahng keun kahng kahw pak tai (͡ҧ׹ҧǻѡ)

Thai. Southern bat moth. Name for the Giant Uranid Moth, species Lyssa menoetius. It is closely related to the phi seua klahng keun kahng kahw thammada. See also kahng kahw and phi seua.

phi seua klahng keun kahng kahw thammada (͡ҧ׹ҧǸ)

Thai. Common bat moth. Name for the Giant Uranid Moth, species Lyssa zampa. It is closely related to the phi seua klahng keun kahng kahw pak tai. See also kahng kahw and phi seua.

phi seua muan waan (ǹҹ)

Thai. Queasy-sweet moth. Name for any of the species of Fruit-piercing Moth.

phi seua non jo mai (˹͹)

Thai. Moth (phi seua) of tree-boring larvae (non). Generic name for moths  of the family Cossidae, such as Xyleutes persona (fig.), Xyleutes strix, Zeuzera pyrina (fig.), etc. Members of this family are commonly known as carpenter moths or goat moths. The first designation refers to the fact that the larvae of most species are tree borers that infest wood, in some species taking up to three years to mature, whereas the latter name refers to the fact that they often have an unpleasant smell. The Thai word phi seua literally means butterfly, but the term is also generally used for moths, which specifically are called phi seua klahng keun, i.e. night butterfly.

phi seua non kah fahk thammada (˹͹ҽҡ)

Thai. Common parasite-worm butterfly. Name for the Painted Jezebel.

phi seua non khao sahn laai seua (˹͹)

Thai. Rice caterpillar tiger butterfly. Name for the Common tiger, a butterfly with the scientific name Danaus genutia, which is commonly found throughout South and Southeast Asia, from India and Sri Lanka, to Indonesia and Australia. Its wings, with a span of 75-95 mm, have an orange to reddish-brown background colour, with darkened veins that are marked with broad black bands, and black margins with two rows of small white spots. Its body is black with white dots. Males have a prominent black-and-white spot on the underside of the hindwing. There are several subspecies. Also called Striped Tiger.

phi seua sahyan sih tahn thammada (ѳյŸ)

Thai. Common brown evening butterfly. Name for the Common Evening Brown.

phi seua samut (ผีเสื้อสมุทร)

Thai. Marine butterfly. A class of demons living in water. READ ON.

phi seua saphai fah (о¿)

Thai. Pale blue sling bag butterfly. Thai designation for the Common Bluebottle.

phi seua yah (˭)

Thai. Grass butterfly. Name for any of the species of Wasp Moths.

phi seua yak (ѡ)

Thai. Giant butterfly. Name for the Atlas Moth (fig.).

phisiw (ի)

Thai-Tae Chew name for Bi Xie.

Phi Tah Khohn (ผีตาโขน)

Thai. Ghostly vision masked dance performance. Annual festival in Dahn Saai, in Loei province. READ ON.

Phi Tong Leuang (յͧͧ)

Thai. ‘Ghosts of the Yellow Leaves’. Local nickname for the Mlabri people, because due to their speedy nomadic lifestyle, in which they never tend to stay in any given place for very long and thus inhabit simple bamboo huts thatched with leaves (fig.), it is said that they abandon their dwellings as soon as the leaves turn yellow. See also phi and tong.

Phitayalahp Phrithiyakorn (Է IJҡ)

Thai. Name of a prince of the Rattanakosin Period, who was born on 7 November 1885 as Prince Thaniniwat Sonakun, a grandson of King Rama IV, his father being the 62nd child of King Mongkut. He was a minister of justice, with the title of Krom Meuan, and President of the Privy Council, succeeding Prince Rangsit Prayoonsak (fig.) at his death in 1951 and substituting as Regent for King Rama IX during the latter's royal visit to Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines in 1963. Prince Phitayalahp Phrithiyakorn passed away on 8 September 1974, aged 88. See also POSTAGE STAMP.

Phitayalongkorn (Էŧó)

Thai. Name of a prince of the Rattanakosin Period, who was a philosopher and had the title of Krom Meuan. The prince was born on 10 January 1876 AD, as the son of Phra Ong Chao Yod Yingyot (ͧʹ), who in the reign of his cousin King Rama V was Uparacha or Vice King of Siam and as the eldest son of Phra Pinklao, and thus a nephew to King Mongkut, held the title of Front Palace. He was one of the most respected poets of the Rattanakosin era and wrote under the pseudonym NMS (). He resided in Wang Pramuan in khwaeng Silom, in Bangkok's khet Bangrak. His eldest daughter was Princess Wiphawadi Rangsit, who inherited his gift for writing. Prince Phitayalongkorn passed away on 23 July 1945 from a cerebral hemorrhage, aged 68. He is known as the Father of Cooperatives in Thailand. See also POSTAGE STAMPS (1) and (2).

Phitsanulok (พิษณุโลก)

1. Thai. World of Vishnu. A province (map) and its capital city of the same name in North Thailand, approximately 377 kms North of Bangkok and named after the original designation for Angkor Wat. In the Northeast, a small stretch of land in between Uttaradit and Loei, borders with Xaignabouli province in Laos. The city is located at the Nan river and is known for the Phraphutta Chinnarat Buddha image in Wat Phra Sri Rattanamahathat. Though the area is said to have been inhabited since the Neolithic Era, the city, then situated at about 5 kilometers to the South of present-day Phitsanulok, was only founded in 953 AD as a strategic Khmer outpost, by Garnboon and Nokrong (fig.), two former chieftains (fig.) and was initially referred to as Song Khwae (ͧ), meaning Two [River] Tributaries, due to its then location on the confluence of the Haet (˵) and Nan rivers. In the 14th century, king Mahadhammaracha Lithai (fig. ) of Sukhothai, moved the city to its present location, though the name Song Khwae was initially preserved. During the Ayutthaya Period, Phitsanulok served for a while as the second capital of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. In 1555, prince Naresuan was born in the city of Phitsanulok and was later sent there to govern it, after his exile in Burma and following his appointment as heir to the throne of Ayutthaya. Today the province has nine amphur. Its main places of interest include Wat Phra Sri Rattanamahathat (fig.) with the attractive Phraphutta Chinnarat Buddha image (fig.), the Buranathai Buddha Image Foundry (fig.) and the adjacent Suan Nok Thai Seuksah Bird Garden (fig.), a Giant Chicken Coop (fig.), a Giant Kilometer Marker (fig.), etc. See also Phitsanulok data file.

2. According to ancient sources, the original name of Angkor Wat. Due to the lack of a v-sound in the Thai language (see Thai Alphabet), the name Phitsanu became a cognate for the name Witsanu, which has a common etymological origin. In early recordings, Angkor Wat was referred to as Phreah Pisnulok or Phra Phitsanulok, i.e. the World of Vishnu (Vishnu-loka) and the name Angkor Wat, in Khmer actually Angkor Vat and in Thai Nakhon Wat, meaning Capital Temple, Temple City or City of Temples, only became a popular designation later on, after its rediscovery and popularization in the West, in the mid-19th century. The names Phreah Pisnulok and Vishnuloka are also reminiscent of Paramavishnuloka, the posthumous title and deified name of Suryavarman II, the founder of Angkor Wat.

phittih (พิธี)

Thai for ceremony.

Phittih Kohnjuk (พิธีโกนจุก)

Thai. Tonsure Ceremony. A ritual ceremony in which a small tuft of hair, called juk by the local population, is cut off and shaved (kohn) when the boys reach the age of 11 or 13. Since 12 is a pair number and considered to bring bad luck the ceremony will not be performed at that age. The growing of the tuft of hair goes back on a centuries old belief that it should prevent children from becoming chronically ill. The ceremony is reminiscent of the buat ceremony, which is performed on a person entering the priesthood. The ceremony is generally regarded as a coming of age and in the past, this tradition was also upheld by royalty. At the time of a royal tonsure, a young prince destined for the throne would also be formally invested. In Japan, the topknot of a sumo wrestler is cut off in a hair cutting ceremony upon retirement, thus transforming the wrestler back to civilian status. Also spelt Pittih Kohnjuk. Compare with Phittih Tham Khwan Deuan.

Phittih Phrom Nahm Mon Sop (ԸվȾ)

Thai. Corpse holy water sprinkling ceremony. A ritual performed by a monk during a funeral ceremony, in which a deceased is sprinkled with nahm mon, i.e. holy water. See also rod nahm mon and Luang Poo Tai Hong Kong.

Phittih Sabaan Tong (พิธีสาบานธง)

Thai for Trooping the Colour.

Phittih Suansanam Thahaan Rachawanlop (พิธีสวนสนามทหารราชวัลลภ)

Thai for the annual Military Parade of the Royal Guards, in English often referred to as Trooping the Colour.

Phittih Tham Khwan Deuan (ԸշӢѭ͹)

See Tham Khwan Deuan.

phlaay (พลาย)

Thai for male elephant. See also Asian Elephant, phang and sihdoh.

Phlaay Chumphon (ª)

1. Thai. Name of a character in the story Khun Chang Khun Paen, i.e. a child of Khun Paen with Nang Kaew Kiriyah (ҧǡ), i.e. a daughter of the Phraya of Sukhothai and Nang Phen Chan (ҧ筨ѹ). The HTMS Phlaay Chumphon, a submarine of the type Madchanu once used by the Royal Thai Navy (fig.), was named after this character.

2. Thai. Name of a submarine, usually referred to as the HTMS Phlaay Chumphon, i.e. a U-boat of the type Madchanu that was once used by the Royal Thai Navy (fig.), and which is named after a character from the story Khun Chang Khun Paen.

phlab (พลับ)

Thai for persimmon. Also called phlab jien, maphlab and takoh.

phlab jihn (พลับจีน)

A Thai name for persimmon.

phlabphlah (พลับพลา)

Thai. The temporary quarters for a king, i.e. a royal pavilion. It is build especially for the king when he has to attend, overlook, or take part in a ceremony, and whereas some pavilions may afterwards be dismantled, as is the case with royal funerals held at Sanam Luang (fig.), others are conserved (fig.).

phlab phleung teen pet (ลับพลึงตีนเป็ด)

Thai. Duckfeet lily. Thai name for the spider lily.

Phleng Chaht Thai (เพลงชาติไทย)

Thai. Thai National Anthem. READ ON.

Phleng Kiat Tamruat Khong Thai (ŧõԵǨͧ)

Thai. Song of the honour of the Thai Police. READ ON.

Phleng Sansaroen Phra Barami (เพลงสรรเสริญพระบารมี)

Thai-rajasap. Song of praise to the grandeur. The Royal Hymn of Thailand. READ ON.

phleng tanyong (ŧѹ§)

Thai. Name for the music and lyrics that accompanies the Muslim traditional rong ngeng folk dances of southern Thailand. Although it initially consisted of only vocals, an ensemble is nowadays composed of a violin and one or more small drums known as klong ram manah. Also called phleng tonyohng.

phleng tonyohng (ŧ§)

Thai. Another name for phleng tanyong.

phluang (พลวง)

Thai name for dipterocarpus.

phoenix

Name often used in English to refer to a Chinese mythical bird which is actually called fenghuang (fig.) in Chinese. It is often depicted together with a dragon (fig.), and as such is a symbol of the Emperor (fig.).

phohng phaang (⾧ҧ)

Thai. Ghost-like. Name of a traditional Thai children's game, in which one player is blindfolded and made to turn around three times. He is further referred to as the fish. The others hold hands and walk around him starting a question and answer rhyme, chanting: Catch me if you can; the fish swims by, the fish is blind; catch me dead or alive; what will it be, a dead or a live fish?. If the answer is a dead fish, the other children can move around freely when the blindfolded player comes around to chase them, but if it answers, a live fish, then everyone else must freeze, and when caught, the fish must guess who the person is and if he guesses right he will be replaced by that unlucky person. In English, a equivalent of this game is known as Blind Man's Buff. See also POSTAGE STAMP.

phom ()

Thai. Large, round, cylindrical basket, used for storing unhusked rice or unthreshed paddy. It is woven from thin bamboo strips and patched with earth. It is usually about 120 centimeters wide and either of a similar height or somewhat higher. It is typically kept in a shack with an elevated floor made from bamboo, adjacent or close to the house. See also POSTAGE STAMP.

photduang (พดด้วง)

Thai. A former currency in Siam, which due to its specific shape is known as bullet money. READ ON.

photisat (โพธิสัตว์)

Thai for bodhisattva.

Photiyaan (โพธิญาณ)

Thai for Bodhiyan.

phoykuan (โพยก๊วน)

Thai. Bill of exchange, especially the one circulating among Chinese businessmen in the Far East. See also pih and photduang.

Phra (พระ)

1. Thai. Holy or sacred. Term used to express respect and used as a prefix before the names of kings or things associated with the monarchy or royalty, gods and objects of veneration, including Buddha images, e.g. Phra Chao Naresuan, King Naresuan; Phra Rachawang, royal palace; Phra Chedi, a stupa or chedi; etc. Generally used without changing the meaning of a word. It is related to the words Brahman and phreah, as well as with the Burmese term Phaya.

2. Thai. A clergyman, monk or Buddhist priest, e.g. Phrasong and  Phrasong Ong Chao. Also used for a saint or hermit.

3. Thai. A non-hereditary title or bandasak  immediately below a Phrya and above a Luang.

4. Thai. The protagonist or hero in a story, e.g. Phra Narai and Phra Sang.

Phra Ajaan Man (Ҩ)

Thai. Determined Teacher Monk. Popular name for Man Phoorithattoh (fig.), with the titles Phra and Ajaan.

phraam (พราหมณ์)

1. Thai for brahman.

2. Thai. A kind of mango.

Phra Ahtit (ҷԵ)

Thai name for the sun god, as well as the god of Sunday. He drives a chariot pulled by seven horses and is the lokapala of the Southwest. He, together with the moon god Chandra, discovered the deceit of the demon Rahu when the amrita was distributed. He is also known by the name Nairitti (fig.) and in Sanskrit he is called Surya. His charioteer who drives him across the sky is called Aruna. In the Ramakien, he is requested to slow down the seven horses that pull his chariot, in order to gain time when Phra Lak (fig.) was struck unconscious by the magical Mokhasak spear, thus allowing Hanuman (fig.) enough time to collect the required herbs to break the spell. See also thep prajam wan.

Phra Angkahn (ѧ)

1. Thai. The god of war and the god of Tuesday. His mount is a buffalo. In a later incarnation, he was born as the monkey-warrior Wisantrahwih (fig.). Also transcribed Phra Angkarn. See also thep prajam wan.

2.  Thai-Rajasap. The ashes of royalty. Also transcribed Phra Angkarn.

Phra Anyah Kohnthanya (ѭ⡳ѭ)

Thai name for Ajnata Kaundinya.

Phra Aphaimanih (พระอภัยมณี)

A Thai epic story in verse written by Sunthorn Phu. READ ON.

Phrabaht (кҷ)

1. Thai-Rajasap for the feet of a king or a prince. See also baht.

2. Thai-Rajasap. Title used as a prefix to the name of a king after 1782, in the Bangkok or Rattanakosin period.

Phra Bodhisattva (พระโพธิสัตว์)

See bodhisattva.

Phra Borom Maha Rachawang (Ҫѧ)

See Phra Rachawang.

Phra Boromma Rachaanusawarih (кҪҹ)

Thai. Name and prefix for any royal statue or memorial.

Phra Boromma Rachaanuyaht (кҪҹحҵ)

Thai. Royal Permission or Royal Assent. See Krut Trah Tang Hahng.

Phra Boromma Sahrihrikathat (พระบรมสารีริกธาตุ)

Thai. A bone relic of the Buddha, or sometimes of other buddhas, i.e. notable Buddhist monks and saints. They are sometimes preserved in bell-glass displays or miniature stupas, but more likely enshrined in a chedi. When the Buddha died, the cremation of his body was conducted by Ananda, one of his favourite followers. Seven neighbouring rulers, as well as king Ajatasatru demanded that his relics were divided amongst them. The residents of Kusinagara, the place in North India where the Buddha died, initially refused this and it almost led to a war. Through the advice and intervention of a wise man, named Drona, calamity was averted and the relics were divided between the eight countries. In addition, the ashes of the funeral pyre and an earthen jar with relics were given to two more rulers. Temples with Buddha relics in Thailand are referred to as Wat Phrathat.

Phra Buddha Sihing

See Phra Phutta Sihing.

Phra Chadil (Ъ)

Thai-Sanskrit. Name of a reusi, i.e. a hermit (fig.), in the epos Ramakien. He could show Hanuman (fig.) and his army the way to Longka in their search of Nang Sida (fig.), the consort of Phra Ram. See LIST OF RAMAKIEN CHARACTERS.

Phra Chao (พระเจ้า)

1. Title of a prince in Thailand, e.g. Phra Chao Look Yah Teh and Phra Chao Naresuan.

2. In Thailand the prefix of a name or title of a monarch, e.g. Phra Chao Taksin and Phra Chao Chakrapad, where Chakrapad means emperor and Phra Chao is the prefix.

3. Thai. A god or deity, a divine being.

4. Thai the prefix of a name or title of respected figure, as in Phra Chao Tah.

Phra Chao Look Yah Te (พระเจ้าลูกยาเธอ)

Thai. Prince, son of a king.

Phra Chao Naresuan (พระเจ้านเรศวร)

See Naresuan.

Phra Chao Seua ()

Thai. Tiger King. Self-proclaimed title of the cruel Ayutthayan King Somdet Phra Sanphet VIII of the Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty. He ruled for only five years, from 1703 to 1708 AD, and was infamous for his reign of tyranny, terror and debauchery. He was a cunning, bullying schemer, who after the death of his predecessor, King Somdet Phra Phetracha, had so terrorized the rightful heir to the throne, i.e. the king's nephew Pichai Surin, that the latter gave it up in his favour. He was born in Phichit and is also known by the names Suriyenthrathibodi (¹ҸԺ) and Luang Sorasak (ǧѡ).

 Phra Chao Tah (ҵ)

Thai. Respectful Grandfather. Appellation of a hermit character from the story Phra Aphaimanih by Sunthorn Phu, who in English is usually referred to as the Old Hermit. He is also referred to as just Phra Reusi and is depicted on the sixth of a series of eight Thai postage stamps issued in 2009 to publicize the story of Phra Aphaimanih as a major literary work of the Rattanakosin Era (fig.). Also transliterated Phra Chao Ta. See also Phra Chao and Thai Family Tree.

Phra Chao Taksin (พระเจ้าตากสิน)

King Taksin.

phra chedi (พระเจดีย์)

See chedi.

Phra Chinnarat Bai Sema (ЪԹҪ)

Thai. Name given to a Buddhist amulet that is part of the five Phra Yod Khunphon. READ ON.

Phra Chom Klao (พระจอมเกล้า)

Thai name for Rama IV, the fourth monarch of the Chakri dynasty.

Phra Dabot (дҺ)

Thai. Anchorite. Another term for reusi. READ ON.

Phrae (แพร่)

Thai. Propagate, spread. Province (map) and its capital city of the same name in North Thailand, 551 kms to the North of Bangkok. READ ON.

Phra Hoo Yahn (ҹ)

Thai. Drooping Ears Buddha. A popular Buddhist amulet that originates from Wat Phra Sri Rattanamahathat in Lopburi, and which is cast from iron. READ ON.

Phra Idsuan ()

Thai name for the Hindu god Shiva (fig.), especially when referred to in the Ramakien and in khon performances about this epic, where he is represented with a khon mask in the form of a human head, with a white complexion and wearing a golden chadah-like crown, with a peak which is somewhat inflated in the middle. He is depicted on a 2013 Thai postage stamp, as part of a set of eight khon masks (fig.) issued to commemorate the annual Thai Heritage Conservation Day by publicizing the national art of khon.

Phra In (พระอินทร์)

See Indra. Also Phra Intra.

Phra Intra (พระอินทร์)

See Indra. Also Phra In.

Phra Isaan (พระอีสาน)

Thai for Ishana.

Phra Jan (ѹ)

Thai. The god of Monday and of the moon. He discovered the deceit by the demon Rahu during the distribution of the amrita, together with Phra Ahtit, the god of the sun. His mount is a horse. Sometimes transcribed as Phra Jantr, comparable to his Sanskrit name Chandra. See also thep prajam wan.

Phra Kaan Chai Sri (С)

Thai. Name of the servant of Phra Yom, who is responsible for sending the souls of sinners to hell. In Thai art, he is usually depicted as a golden Chaturbuja deity wearing a chadah (fig.) and holding a sword, a wishing gem (fig.) and a pasa, while seated on his mount, i.e. a winged mythological animal. Also transliterated Phra Kan Chai Si. The term Kaan () in his name means black mark of death.

Phra Kaew (พระแก้ว)

See Phra Kaew Morakot.

Phra Kaew Morakot (พระแก้วมรกต)

Thai name for the Emerald Buddha.

Phra Kamphaeng Soom Ko (พระกำแพงซุ้มกอ)

Thai. Name of a popular and well-known Buddhist amulet from Thung Setthi (ɰ), a field in Kamphaeng Phet. READ ON.

Phra Kaneht (พระคเณศ)

See Ganesha.

Phra Kanthakuman (พระขันธ์กุมาร)

A Thai name for Kanthakumara or Subramaniam.

Phra Kathavarayan (พระกัตตะวรายัน)

Thai name for Kathavarayan.

phra khi mah bintabaat (ТҺԳҵ)

Thai. Monks (phra) riding (khi) horses (mah) to go alms begging (bintabaat). Term referring to the monks and novices of Wat Tham Pah Acha Thong in the amphur Mae Chan of Chiang Rai province. Every morning those clergymen set off on horseback rather than on foot to go alms begging in the neighbouring villages. The novices are mostly hill tribe children.

Phra kring (พระกริ่ง)

Thai. A style of Buddha image which rattles when shaken.

Phra Krishna (พระกฤษณะ)

See Krishna.

Phra Kritsana (พระกฤษณะ)

Thai name for Krishna.

phra kruh (พระครู)

Thai. Monk-teacher or honorable teacher. A monk whose main task is to teach, either to lay students (fig.) or novices and monks.

Phra Lak (พระลักษมณ์)

Thai. The stepbrother of Phra Ram, i.e. Rama in the epic story Ramakien. He is the son of king Totsarot and Samut Thevi, and was born as the incarnation of Ananta, Vishnu's naga throne (fig.). Loyal to Phra Ram, he shared the latter's 14 year long exile and assisted him (fig.) in the battle (fig.) against Totsakan (fig.). In iconography, he appears identical to Phra Ram, but has a golden complexion (fig.). Hence, in scenes without colouration, he can easily be confused for Phra Ram, but when depicted together, Phra Lak is usually depicted in a lower, i.e. inferior position, or further in the background.

Phra Lob (ź)

Thai. Name of the look-alike of Phra Mongkut, the son of Phra Ram and Sida in the Ramakien. He was created by a reusi or hermit, after it was at some point thought that Mongkut had disappeared. Since he is a clone of Mongkut, he is in murals depicted with a green or a white complexion, usually next to his original.

Phra Loh (พระลอ)

Thai. A story in verse about a handsome prince, who was lured into a love affair with two princess-sisters. READ ON.

Phra Mae Kwan Im (พระแม่กวนอิม)

Thai name for Kuan Yin, the Chinese goddess of mercy. Depicted as a lady, she is the female form of the male bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, the personification of compassion from Mahayana Buddhism. In Japan she is known as Kwannon.

Phra Mae Naak Galyanih (พระแม่นาคกัลยาณี)

Another designation for Naak Galyah.

Phra Maha Malah ()

Thai. Name for a kind of royal hat made of golden brocade. It is cylindrical and tapering in shape, and topped with a Phra Kiew Yod (ʹ) or Chula Mongkut (خ), i.e. a small golden chadah-style coronet. It has a broad brim and is adorned with the blond tail feathers of a bird-of-paradise, a bird known in Thai as nok karawake. This kind of hat is for a king only and appears on a Thai postage stamp issued in 2009 as part of a set of four stamps featuring royal headgear (fig.). In English it is referred to has the Gold Brocade Hat. See also Phra Malah Biang, Phra Malah Phet Yai and Phra Malah Sao Soong (fig.).

Phra Maha Phichai Mongkut (พระมหาพิชัยมงกุฎ)

Thai. Great Crown of Victory or Great Crown of Honour. Part of the Thai royal regalia or kakuttapan, consisting of a golden crown (fig.) in the form of a chadah. It is worn by the kings of the Royal House of Chakri on the day of their coronation, when they are invested with royal power, which is symbolized by the crown.

Phra Mahathat (พระมหาธาตุ)

Thai. Relic of the Buddha placed in a stupa. Such a relic without a stupa is called Phra Baromma Sahrihrikathat. Also transcribed Phra Mahataht, Phra Maha Taht, Phra Maha That and Phramahathat. See also sahrihrikathat.

Phra Maha Ut (ص)

Thai. Name for an image or amulet of a seated figure who covers his eyes with two hands. READ ON.

Phra Mahesuan ()

Thai. Name of a Buddhist amulet that originates from Wat Phra Sri Rattanamahathat in Suphanburi, and which dates back to the U-Thong Dynasty. READ ON.

Phra Malah Biang (§)

Thai. Name for a royal hat as worn by King Naresuan and his generals in battle (fig.). READ ON.

Phra Malah Phet Yai (ྪ˭)

Thai. Name for a kind of royal hat, made of black suede in the shape of half a citrus fruit, including the tip at the top and with the brim rolled up into a scroll. It is decorated with diamonds in the form of a tiara. The top is decorated with round diamonds, flanked on both sides with diamonds in an arabesque design, and below the tiara is a decorative floral motif also made with diamonds. This kind of hat is somewhat reminiscent of the Chinese name yi shan guan (fig.) and appears on a Thai postage stamp issued in 2009 as part of a set of four stamps featuring royal headgear (fig.). In English it is referred to has the Grand Diamond Hat. See also Phra Malah Biang, Phra Maha Malah (fig.) and Phra Malah Sao Soong (fig.).

Phra Malah Sao Soong (٧)

Thai. Name for a kind of royal headgear (fig.), that made of suede in various colour according to the colours of the day (see Phra prajam wan). The crown, i.e. the portion of the hat that covers the top of the head, is cylindrical and tapering in shape, and topped with a Phra Kiew Yod (ʹ) or Chula Mongkut (خ), i.e. a small golden chadah-style coronet, whilst one side of the broad brim is folded upward. The hat is adorned with a golden rim and gold embroidery, as well as with the blond tail feathers of a bird-of-paradise, which is known in Thai as nok karawake, a name used for both a true and a mythical bird. In addition, it is bejeweled with precious gems according to the rank of the wearer. For instance, a red-coloured gem is for a king whereas a yellow gem is for members of the royal family of Somdet Chao Fah rank. Although the hat exists in many colours, it is often portrayed in its black form, e.g. on a Thai postage stamp issued in 2009 as part of a set of four stamps featuring royal headgear (fig.), and King Bhumiphon wore it on the day of his coronation. In English, it is referred to has the Felt Hat. See also Phra Malah Biang, Phra Malah Phet Yai and Phra Maha Malah (fig.).

Phra Malai ()

Thai. Name of a legendary Sinhalese monk, who visited the different places of narok, the Buddhist hell. READ ON.

Phra Nahtamunih (йүع)

Thai. Hermit-actor or acting sage. Another name for Phra Paratamuni.

Phra Nakhon Sri Ayutthaya (พระนครศรีอยุธยา)

The full name for Ayutthaya, composed of Phra (sacred), Nakhon (city), Sri (majestic), and Ayutthaya (undefeatable).

Phra Nang Chamadevi (พระนางจามเทวี)

See Chamadevi.

Phra Nang Klao (พระนั่งเกล้า)

Thai name for Rama III (fig.), the third monarch (fig.) of the Chakri dynasty. See also list of Thai kings.

Phra Nang Phaya (йҧ)

Thai. Name of a Buddhist amulet from Wat Nang Phaya (วัดนางพญา) in Phitsanulok (fig.). READ ON.

Phra Narai (พระนารายณ์)

1. Thai name for the Hindu god Vishnu. READ ON.

2. Another name for Phra Naraiyamaharaat, the King of Ayutthaya from 1656, until his death during the revolt of Ayutthaya, in 1688. See also list of Thai Kings.

Phra Naraiyamaharaat (พระนารายณ์มหาราช)

King Narai, ruler of Ayutthaya from 1656 until his death during the revolt of Ayutthaya, in 1688. See also list of Thai kings.

Phra Naresuan (พระนเรศวร)

See Naresuan.

Phra Naret (й)

Thai. Name of a Brahman-Hindu deity, who is worshipped in the military, especially in the Royal Thai Navy. He is an important deity with regards to suppression and is depicted with four arms, as well as with a crown of victory. He is usually found in shrines next to Phra Narai (fig.), a duo referred to as Phra Naret-Phra Narai (йȾй³).

phranommeua (ประนมมือ)

Thai. The hands brought together as a greeting or to pay respect. See also wai and namadsakahn.

Phra Paisarop (þ)

Thai name for Vaisravana. Also Wetsuwan.

Phra Panjasingkhon (лѭԧ)

Name of a character from the story Ramakien, who is also known as Phra Panjasihkohn (лѭբ), whilst his name is in English also transcribed Phra Panjasikorn. He has a white complexion and a thin, kranok-shaped moustache with ends that point upward, and he wears a chadah-style crown (fig.) with a bulbous centre. He is depicted on a 2013 Thai postage stamp, as part of a set of eight khon masks (fig.) issued to commemorate the annual Thai Heritage Conservation Day by publicizing the national art of khon.

Phra Paratamuni (õع)

Thai-Pali. Name for a hermit or reusi that appears in the story Ramakien. READ ON.

Phra Pathom Boromaha Kasatriyatiraat (лѵҸҪ)

Thai-rajasap. Royal title meaning First Great King, a title usually given to any of the founding kings of a dynasty. The title consists of the words Phra, Pathom (First or Primary), Borom, Maha and Kasatriyatiraat (Raja-King). Both the words Boromaha and Kasatriyatiraat are compound words or kham samaht. The letter m in Boromaha (consisting of Borom and Maha) is in the compound word written and pronounced just once; and Kasatriyatiraat is a combination of the words Kasatriya (derived from Kshatriya) and Raat (derived from Raj), hence our above transliteration.

Phra Pathom Chedi (พระปฐมเจดีย์)

Name of a bell-shaped pagoda, situated in the city of Nakhon Pathom. READ ON.

Phra Phareuhadsabodih (ʺ)

Thai. Name of the god of learning and of the god of Thursday in the thep prajam wan system. Thursdays are related to knowledge and people born on this day are said to have the qualifications of a teacher. This thought comes from Hindu religion where Thursday is called Guruvar, the Sanskrit name for Jupiter and a name derived from the word guru (teacher). His mount is a male deer and he is teacher to all the other gods. In a later incarnation or chaht, he was born as the monkey-warrior Malunthakeson (fig.). See also Wan Kruh.

Phra Phikhanesawora (พระพิฆเนศวร์)

A Thai name for Ganesha, which is also transcribed Phra Phikanesuan.

Phra Phi Kaneht (оԦ)

A Thai name for Ganesha. In Thai khon performances, he is represented with a khon mask in the form of an elephant's head, either with two tusks or with one tusk broken off, and usually with a red complexion. In hun lakon lek he is represented as a puppet with similar features, but without his usual potbelly (fig.). He is depicted on a 2013 Thai postage stamp, as part of a set of eight khon masks (fig.) issued to commemorate the annual Thai Heritage Conservation Day by publicizing the national art of khon. He is also known by a variety of other names, including Phra Kaneht, Phra Wikhanesuan, Phra Phikhanesawora, Phra Phinai, Winayok, Ekatanta, etc.

phra phim (о)

Thai for votive tablet. Sometimes transcribed phrapim.

Phra Phinai (оԹ)

Another Thai name for Ganesha. Also transcribed Phra Phinaai or Phra Phinaay.

Phra Phirun (оس)

Thai. Name for the Thai god of rain. READ ON.

Phra Phleung (ԧ)

Thai. God of fire. A designation for Agni, the Vedic god of fire. Tawaai Phra Phleung, literally to offer to the god of fire, is an expression used during cremation ceremonies and means to cremate [somebody].

Phra Phong Suphan (мؾó)

Thai. Name of a popular and well-known Buddhist amulet from Wat Phra Sri Rattanamahathat in Suphanburi. READ ON.

Phra Phrom (พระพรหม)

1. Thai name for the Hindu god Brahma, who in the Ramakien is depicted with a khon mask of a white human-like face wearing a golden chadah-like crown of which at the centre of the peak are another four, smaller, white human-like faces, which are positioned back-to-back, as if one for every direction of the compass (fig.). He is depicted on a 2013 Thai postage stamp, as part of a set of eight khon masks (fig.) issued to commemorate the annual Thai Heritage Conservation Day by publicizing the national art of khon.

2. Thai. The name of an amphur in the southern province of Nakhon Sri Thammarat.

Phra Phrom Sih Nah (พระพรหม ๔ หน้า)

Thai. Brahma with four faces. A Thai name for Brahma when represented with a head with four faces (fig.).

Phra Phrot (พระพรต)

Stepbrother of Phra Ram (fig.), and son of King Totsarot and Queen Kaiyakesi, in the Thai epic story Ramakien. He is the incarnation of the chakra, i.e. the weapon of Vishnu, for one. In iconography, he is usually depicted as a human with a brown complexion, often with a bow.

phra phum chao tih (พระภูมิเจ้าที่)

Thai. Guardian spirits inhabiting a spirit house called sahn chao tih which is usually erected next to a sahn phra phum. They are the spirits who lived on the land before the house was built. The first one will house the chao tih, the latter the phra phum and often also a jawed.

Phra Phut (ظ)

Thai. The Thai deity of Wednesday and the god of speech and commerce. As such, he is depicted on the logo of the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (fig.), holding a book and a sword, the first symbolizing his knowledge in various sciences, the latter symbolizing his sharp intelligence. His mount is an elephant. See also thep prajam wan. See POSTAGE STAMP.

Phra Phut (พระพุทธ)

Thai term or title used for any buddha, the Buddha or a Buddha image. Also described and pronounced Phraphut, Phra Phutta or Phra Phuttha.

Phraphut Chinnarat (พระพุทธชินราช)

See Phraphutta Chinnarat.

Phraphuttabaht (พระพุทธบาท)

Thai name for Buddhapada, i.e. the Lord Buddha's Footprint. It is also the name of a painting by the Thai artist Phichai Niran (พิชัย นิรันต์), which was depicted on a Thai postage stamp issued on 2 August 2013 (fig.) as part of a set of eight stamps on contemporary art in the third series of commemorative stamps to mark the 2013 World Stamp Exhibition, which was held at the convention hall of Siam Paragon in Bangkok between 2 and 14 August 2013.

Phra Phutta Butyarat Chakraphan Phimon Manihmai (оطѵѡþôԾ)

Thai. Stainless jewel of the empire topaz-gem Buddha image. Name of an ancient Buddha image, initially from the city of Lavo and currently kept at Phra Thihnang Amphon Sathaan in Dusit Palace, the official residence of the Thai monarchy, since recently inhabited by the Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn.

Phra Phutta Chao (พระพุทธเจ้า)

Thai name for the historical Buddha. Also Phra Phutta for a buddha.

Phra Phutta Chao Luang (оطǧ)

Thai for a late king or deceased king.

Phraphutta Chinnarat (พระพุทธชินราช)

Thai. Familiar Prince Buddha. Important Buddha image from the 14th century housed in Wat Phra Sri Rattanamahathat in Phitsanulok and cast by order of king Mahadhammaracha Lithai. It is generally considered one of the most beautiful Buddha images in the nation. Compare with Khun Chinnarat.

Phra Phutta Leut La (พระพุทธเลิศหล้า)

Thai name for Rama II, the second king of the Chakri dynasty. The name is often followed by the suffix Noppalai, a Pali word meaning welkin, sky, or blue infinite. This is a completion of the word La which means earth. Hence he is fully called Phrabaht Somdet Phra Phutta Leut La Noppalai and translates roughly as His Majesty the King, Perfect Buddha of the Earth and Sky. See also list of Thai kings.

Phra Phutta Maha Suwan Patimakon (оطóҡ)

Thai. Official name for the Golden Buddha of Wat Traimit in Bangkok.

Phra Phutta Maha Wachira Uttamopat Satsada (оطǪصʴ)

Thai. Official name for the Phra Phuttaroop Khao Chee Jan Buddha image.

Phra Phutta Monthon (พระพุทธมณฑล)

Thai-Pali. Buddha-circle or Buddha-mandala. Name of a Buddhist compound in Nakhon Pathom. READ ON.

Phra Phuttaroop (оطٻ)

Thai name for any Buddha image, which derives from the Sanskrit term Buddharoopa (बुद्धरूप), which literally means form of the Buddha.

Phra Phuttaroop Khao Chee Jan (พระพุทธรูปเขาชีจรรย์)

Thai. Mount Chee Jan Buddha Image. Name of a  huge laser-carved Buddha image finished with gilded plate attached to the bare side of Khao Chee Jan (Khao Chee Chan) mountain in the vicinity of Wat Yahn Sangwarahrahm Woramahawihaan, in the tambon Huay Yai  of the amphur Sattahip in Chonburi province (map). Its construction was part of a royalty-initiated project in 1996 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of King Bhumipon's accession to the throne. The official name for the Buddha image is Phra Phutta Maha Wachira Uttamopat Satsada.

Phra Phutta Sayait (พระพุทธไสยาสน์)

Thai name for a reclining Buddha. Also Phra Phut Sayait.

Phra Phutta Sihing (оطԧ)

Name of an ancient Buddha image in Singhalese style, cast in 1243 AD by the orders of King Sihala () of Langka. According to one legend, it was brought to Thailand by Poh Khun Ramkamhaeng of Sukhothai and was placed in Wat Phra Singh Woramahawihaan (fig.) in Chiang Mai, in 1367. However, another story relates that it was brought to Thailand by Phra Chao Chantraphanu (ѹҳ) of Nakhon Sri Thammarat and was placed in Wat Phra Mahathat Woramahawihaan. Today there are three Buddha statues in Thailand, that are claimed to be the Phra Phutta Sihing. Two of them are housed in the aforementioned temples, the third one in Phra Thihnang Phutthaisawan in the National Museum, in Bangkok (fig.). The one from Chiang Mai is also referred to as Phra Singh, i.e. the Lion Buddha. In English Phra Phutta Sihing is usually called Phra Buddha Sihing.

Phra Phutta Sothon (พระพุทธโสธร)

Buddha image in the Sothon Wararam Woriwihaan Temple (fig.) in Chachengsao, a kuh bahn kuh meuang and one of the most sacred images in the country associated with Luang Po Sothon, a Phra saksit who forecast the exact time of his own death. It is one of the five floating Buddha images mentioned in the Legend of the Five Floating Buddha Statues, known in Thai as Tamnaan Luang Pho Loy Nahm Hah Phi-Nong.

Phra Phutta Trih Lohk Seht (พระพุทธตรีโลกเชษฐ์)

Thai. Name of the principal Buddha image at the ubosot of Wat Suthat in Bangkok. It was cast in the Rattanakosin Period and is 4 wah and 18 niw high, i.e. 8 meters and 37.494 centimeters, or 8 meters 37.366 centimeters to be exact. The Buddha image is seated in the maravijaya pose.

Phra Phutta Yotfa Chulalok (พระพุทธยอดฟ้าจุฬาโลก)

Thai name for King Rama I (fig.). Sometimes transcribed as Buddha Yod Fa Chulalok. He is also called Phra Pathom Boromaha Kasatriyatiraat, a title meaning the First Great King [of the Chakri dynasty] (fig.). See also list of Thai kings.

Phra pikkasu (พระภิกษุ)

See Phra pikku.

Phra pikku (พระภิกขุ)

Thai. A Buddhist monk or priest. See also bhikku.

phrapim (พระพิมพ์)

Thai name for a votive tablet. Also transcribed phra phim.

Phra Pinklao (л)

Thai. Name of a younger brother of King Rama IV, who was vice-king or uparacha. He has an arboretum in Chachengsao and a bridge in Bangkok (fig.) named after him.

Phra pit tah (лԴ)

Thai. Buddha covering the eyes. Popular name for a Phra Maha Ut image or amulet (fig.) which has the depiction of a seated figure shielding his eyes with both hands.

Phra prajam wan (พระประจำวัน)

1. Thai. System of personal worship in Thailand in which each day of the week corresponds with a certain representation of a Buddha image. READ ON.

2. Thai. System of worship in Hinduism, often in accordance with the navagraha or nine planets. READ ON.

Phra prajam wan geut (พระประจำวันเกิด)

See Phra prajam wan.

Phra Prakohntan (л⤹þ)

Thai. Name of character from the Ramakien. READ ON.

Phra Prang Sahm Yod (лҧʹ)

Thai. Three Spikes Prang. Name of a monument located in the amphur meuang of Lopburi and which consists of three adjoining towers made from sandstone and laterite. Due to its Bayon style features, it is assumed that it was built during the reign of the Khmer king Jayavarman VII, when Lopburi was part of the Khmer empire. It initially was a Brahman-Hindu shrine devoted to the Hindu Trimurti of Vishnu, Brahma and Shiva (fig.), the divine triad which is represented in the three towers. The towers can be accessed and each of them individually houses a Shivalinga. In the 17th century, during the reign of king Narai the Khmer shrine was converted into a Mahayana Buddhist temple and a wihaan was built in front of it. In the central tower a pahng nahg prok Buddha image (fig.) was erected, whilst in the prang on the right a statue of the Phra Bodhisattva was erected and in the tower on the left a sculpture of the female bodhisattva Prajnaparamita (fig.) was placed. Also transcribed Phra Prang Sam Yot.

Phra prathaan (พระประธาน)

Thai. The main or principal Buddha image in a temple.

Phra Rachalanjakon (Ҫѭ)

Thai-rajasap for the personal seals used by monarchs, to stamp, impress or seal up official documents and private papers. They can be divided into many division and categories depending on style and usage, but in general there are three types, i.e. the Royal Seal, the Privy Seal, and the Great Seal.

phra rachaphithi sip song deuan (พระราชพิธีสิบสองเดือน)

Thai. Royal ceremonies during twelve months.  A literary work written by king Chulalongkorn in which the traditional activities and ceremonies in each month are explained, starting from the Sukhothai and Ayutthaya Periods until the Rattanakosin Period, and in addition some Buddhist rituals are clarified. For each month it describes one or more significant ceremonies as well as a number of less important rituals, plus any seasonal holidays. See also praphenih sip song deuan.

Phra Rachawang (พระราชวัง)

Thai. Royal palace. The residence of the king and the royal family during the Rattanakosin Period. It's construction was started by Rama I on 6 May 1782 and it was aimed to recreate the glory of Ayutthaya, the former capital which was destroyed by the Burmese in 1767, only 15 years after this event. Its site was originally occupied by a large Chinese community who the government had transferred to a place south of the city walls, an area today known as Chinatown. During subsequent reigns the palace has been extensively modified and remodelled. The palace complex (fig.) consists of several throne halls, such as the Chakri Throne Hall (fig.), Dusit Maha Prasat (fig.) and Phra Thihnang Siwahlai (з - fig.), residential quarters and administrative offices, such as the Bureau of the Royal Household (fig.), as well as the Pavilion of Regalia, Royal Decorations and Coins (fig.), whilst an adjacent palace temple was built to house the Emerald Buddha. It was the religious and administrative centre of the Siamese Kingdom until the end of the absolute monarchy, in 1932. Also known as the Grand Palace. Its complete name is Phra Borom Maha Rachawang. See also Phra Rachawang Deum. See also QUADCOPTER PICTURE and POSTAGE STAMPS (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5).

Phra Rachawang Deum (Ҫѧ)

Thai. Former Palace or Original Palace, but usually translated as the OLd Palace. It is the Thai name for the Thonburi Palace, i.e. the former royal residence of King Taksin in Thonburi (fig.), now within the compound of the headquarters of the Royal Thai Navy at Wichai Prasit Fort (fig.).

Phra Ram (พระราม)

Thai name for Rama (fig.) or Ramachandra, the seventh avatar of the god Vishnu, and the hero (fig.) from the Indian epic Ramayana, in Thailand called Ramakien. He was the son of king Totsarot and queen Kao Suriya. He was able to lift the Molih bow and thus received Sita in marriage. Whereas as the avatar of Vishnu, he may have a green complexion, as seen in the murals of Wat Phra Kaew, in murals on the Khmer Reamker, he has a white complexion. Yet, in khon, Phra Ram wears only a chadah-style crown (fig.) and no mask at all, or alternatively a khon-mask with a green face (fig.). Then again, e.g. as in puppetry, his complexion is white, but when he reverts to his divine form, referred to as Phra Narai, he is depicted with a purple complexion (fig.) and usually in Chaturbuja-style, i.e. with four arms (fig.). He may also be depicted riding the Garuda, which in the Ramakien is known as Suban, and also called Krut. See also POSTAGE STAMPS.

Phra Rod (พระรอด)

Thai. Name of a popular and well-known Buddhist amulet from Wat Mahawan (Ѵѹ) in Lamphun. READ ON.

Phra Rot Meri (พระรถเมรี)

Thai name for a Southeast Asian folktale based on an apocryphal jataka saga. READ ON.

Phra Ruang (พระร่วง)

See Phra Ruwang.

Phra Ruang Lang Peun (ǧѧҧ׹)

Thai. A popular Buddhist amulet that originates from Wat Phra Sri Rattanamahathat in Sri Satchanalai, in Sukhothai Province, and which dates back to the Lopburi Period. READ ON.

Phra Ruwang (พระร่วง)

Thai. Title given to King Indraditya of Sukhothai (fig.), the father of King Ramkamhaeng. He liberated Thailand of the yoke of the Khmer and died in 1268 AD. The Khmer king sent an envoy to Phra Ruwang to arrest him. According to legend this emissary, called Khomdamdin, was able to travel underground very fast using magical powers. However, when he emerged to deliver the Khmer King's message, legend says he was turned into stone by Phra Ruwang. Also Phra Ruang. See also list of Thai Kings.

Phra Saeng (พระแสง)

See Phra Saeng Khan Chai Sri.

Phra Saeng Khan Chai Sri (พระแสงขรรค์ชัยศรี)

Thai. Sword of State, also known as the Sword of Victory and a part of the Thai royal regalia or kakuttapan. It symbolizes the king's power over the army and his role as protector of the nation.

Phra saksit (พระศักดิ์สิทธิ์)

Thai. Certain Buddhist monks in Thailand to whom special spiritual powers are ascribed. Often these monks transfer their powers (saksit) onto amulets and votive tablets (fig.) which are consequently collected by devotees.

Phra Samut (ط)

Thai. Name for the Thai god of the oceans. When Phra Narai (fig.) incarnated as Phra Ram (fig.), Phra Samut took the avatar of Nilaraat (fig.), in order to assist Rama in his battle against Totsakan (fig.).

Phra Sang (พระสังข์)

See Sangthong.

Phrasangkaraat (พระสังฆราช)

Thai term for the Supreme Patriarch of the Buddhist church. The position is formally appointed by the king, although the actual selection is made by senior clergymen. It was purportedly first established in 1782, at the founding of the Chakri Dynasty by king Rama I, though some sources mention that a Supreme Patriarch was living at Wat Rakhang in the Thonburi Period. Hence, some sort of similar postion must apparently have existed ‒be it perhaps with a different name or in another form prior to the Rattanakosin Period. Since 1989 and for the Theravada Sect, though with legal authority to also oversee other Thai Buddhist sects, including the Mahayana, this post is held by Somdet Phra Yannasangwon, the 19th Supreme Patriarch since the beginning of the Rattanakosin Period. Born on 3 October 1913 in Kanchanaburi he became 100 years old in 2013, yet passed away just three weeks after his centenary, on 24 October 2013. He was the longest serving Supreme Patriarch up-to-date. The designation Somdet Phra means holiness and is equal to that of royalty. It is used as a prefix to both his name and his title of Supreme Patriarch (Sangkaraat) and points to his high status. Yannasangworn, is a Pali name and could be translated as Mindful Vision or Careful Perception. His name is usually followed by the suffix Sagon Maha Sang(ka) Parinayok (ʡѧԳ¡), meaning the Universal Great Leader of the Sangha. His full name and title is hence Somdet Phra Yahnsangwon Somdet Phrasangkaraat Sagon Maha Sangkaparinayok, although officially he has many more titles and names, as Thai ecclesiastic titles often take the form of additions or alterations to existing monastic names and are granted to monks as they rise through the ranks of the Sangha. He is also referred to by his religious nickname Suvaddhano (DZڲ) and his birth name is Charoen Khotchawat (ԭ ѵ). Sometimes his name is transcribed Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara Suvaddhana Mahathera. In 1956, at the age of 43 and under the titular name Phra Dhammavarabhorn, he was appointed guardian and advisor to king Rama IX during his royal ordination and in 1961 he became abbot of Wat Bowonniwet Wihaan Rachaworawihaan. In 2005, due to the failing health of the aging Patriarch, a representative to act on his behalf was chosen and appointed to serve as Acting Supreme Patriarch. He is known as Somdet Phra Phuttacharn (稾оزҨ) the abbot of Wat Saket, commonly known as Kiaw Upasenoh ( ػ) and previously as Kiaw Chokechai ( ⪤). Also transcribed Phra Sangharaja. It derives from Pali and literally means King (Raja) of the Buddhist Order (Sangha), a title that in Cambodia is referred to as Phreah Sangkhoreach (សង្ឃរាជ - fig.).

Phra Sangkatjaai (พระสังกัจจายน์)

Thai. Name of  a Buddhist monk, who was an arhat during the time of the Lord Buddha. READ ON.

Phra Sao ()

Thai. The god of Saturday. His mount is a tiger. See also thep prajam wan.

Phra Sayaam Thewathiraat (พระสยามเทวาธิราช)

See Siam Thewathiraat.

Phra Seua Meuang (ͧ)

Thai. Name of the deity in charge of protecting the country, both on land and in the water. He watches over the military forces and troops, and keeps the Kingdom free of foreign invasion. In art, he is depicted standing upright and wearing a chadah (fig.), while holding a gada (mace) in one hand and raising a chakra (fig.), an emblem often used by the Army (fig.), with the other.

Phra Siam Thewathiraat (พระสยามเทวาธิราช)

See Siam Thewathiraat.

Phra Sian (พระเศียร)

Thai (rajasap). Term for the head of a king (fig.), a high-ranking royal, or that of a Buddha image (fig.).

Phra Siwalih (พระสิวลี)

Thai. Name of a venerated monk. He is the son of princess Suppawasah, daughter of the king of Kohliya. From early on in her pregnancy, when he was still in his mother's womb, Siwalih already caused a lot of good fortune to his mother, due her adoration for him. According to legend he stayed in his mothers womb for seven years (compare with Lao Tzu) and she was in labour pains for seven days, but immediately after his birth she started to work again as usual. Later, Siwalih ordained as a monk with Sariputta. On the day of his ordination, as soon as he got his hair cut off, with the very first cut of the razorblade, he attained Enlightenment, as a result of his merit. And from the moment he had his head completely shaved, he became an arahan. He perfected his luck factor, caused a lot of gain amongst his fellow monks and received praise from the Enlightened One, who said he was a champion in bringing luck. It is therefore since long believed that anyone who worships Phra Siwalih or a relic of him, will receive peace in the form of happiness and good luck. Phra Siwalih is usually portrayed as a travelling monk, walking with a klot (the closed umbrella on his shoulder), a staff and a yahm shoulder bag. In Myanmar, he is known as Shin Thiwali (fig.), and ususally portrayed holding a Burmese-style pad bai lahn or pad yot, i.e. an ecclesiastical fan used by monks (fig.). See also thudong.

Phra Somdet Wat Rakhang Khositaraam (ѴЦѧԵ)

Thai. Name of a popular and well-known Buddhist amulet from Wat Rakhang Khositaraam Woramahawihaan in Bangkok. READ ON.

Phrasong (พระสงข์)

See Sang.

Phrasong (พระสงฆ์)

Thai. Term for a Buddhist monk. READ ON.

Phra song kreuang (พระทรงเครื่อง)

Thai. Adorned Buddha. A Buddha image decorated with  royal attire and/or jewels, and commonly wearing a chadah headdress. See also adorned Buddha and crowned Buddha.

Phra Song Meuang (зçͧ)

Thai. Name of the deity responsible for watching over, as well as maintaining the various governmental departments and ministries. He is also in charge of protecting the welfare and happiness of the country's citizens. In art, he is depicted standing upright and wearing a chadah (fig.), while holding a sword in one hand and raising the Sankha, i.e. the conch of victory (fig.), with the other.

Phrasong Ong Chao (พระสงฆ์องคเจ้า)

Thai. A Buddhist member of the clergy, monk or priest. See also Phrasong.

Phrasoot (ประสูติ)

Thai. To beget, to give birth, to be born, especially of a prince (rajasap). In religious context the term refers to the birth of the Buddha as prince Siddharta, which took place underneath a sala tree (according to some sources under a teak tree) in Lumbini. In iconography usually represented as Maha Maya who holds the branch of a tree with her right hand (fig.) at times whilst an infant emerges from her side, often in the presence of Brahma and/or Indra (fig.). Derived from the Sanskrit word Prasuti and sometimes transcribed prasut or prasuht. See also somphop, sawankot and sinphrachon.

Phrasooti (प्रसूति)

Sanskrit. Another transliteration for Prasuti.

Phra Sri Ahn (พระศรีอารย์)

Thai. A future bodhisattva who will save humanity.

Phra Sri Sakkaya Thotsaphonlayan Prathan Phutta Monthon Sutthat (ҡзȾŭҹиҹططȹ)

Thai. Holy Sakya Buddha with Full Force Vision and Presiding Protector of the Buddha-mandala. The full, official name of the Phra Phutta Monthon image in Nakhon Pathom.

Phra Suk (ء)

Thai. The god of Friday and of love and beauty. His mount is an ox. See also thep prajam wan.

Phra Suthon (พระสุธน)

Protagonist in the story Manohra.

Phra Tha Kradahn (дҹ)

Thai. Board Position Buddha image. Name of a Buddhist amulet that originates from Sri Sawat (ศรีสวัสดิ์) in Kanchanaburi Province, and which has artistic influences from the Lopburi Period. READ ON.

Phrathat (พระธาตุ)

1. Thai. Relics of saints and Buddhist monks, usually notable Buddhist monks. They typically consist of small pieces of bone, that are kept in bell-glass displays or miniature stupas. See also atti, Phramahathat and that. See also Phra Boromma Sahrihrikathat.

2. Thai. Name for a stupa in Isaan, or −in general− for a pagoda with a relic of a saint or Buddhist monk.

Phrathat Sri Song Rak (иҵͧѡ)

Thai. Stupa for the Love of Two. Name of a circa 17 meter tall pagoda located on the banks of the Man (ѹ) River in the amphur Dahn Saai (ด่านซ้าย) in Loei Province. READ ON.

Phra Thihnang (พระที่นั่ง)

1. Thai. A hall or room in the royal palace. See also Phra Thihnang Anantasamahkom.

2. Thai. Royal.

Phra Thihnang Amphon Sathaan (зʶҹ)

Thai. Name of one of the palace buildings within the Dusit area. It was built in 1906 during the reign of King Rama V, who on 23 October 1910 passed away on the third floor of this edifice. The successive kings Rama VI and Rama VII, who later resided in Dusit Palace, consequently never lived on the third floor, but used only the first two floors of the building, as they considered the third floor to remain the restricted residence of Rama V. When King Bhumipon Adunyadet in 1950 returned from his studies in Switzerland, he took residence in Phra Thihnang Amphon Sathaan, prior to his coronation and marriage on 5 May 1950. It later became the birthplace of three of his children, i.e. Prince Vajiralongkorn, Princess Sirinthon and Princess Chulaphorn Walailak. Officially, the building is today no longer inhabited and has been used as a shrine for important statues and Buddha images, such as Phra Sayaam Thewathiraat and Phra Phutta Butyarat Chakraphan Phimon Manihmai. However, the palace was restored and when around 2014, the Standard (fig.) of Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn can occasionally be seen flying from the flagpole in the inner court, there are rumours that he might have moved from his official residence, i.e. the Sukhothai Palace.

Phra Thihnang Anantasamahkom (พระที่นั่งอนันตสมาคม)

Thai. The Ananta Samahkom Hall (fig.), otherwise known as the Throne Hall in Bangkok (fig.), where today the national legislature assembles. READ ON.

Phra Thihnang Aphisek Dusit (зȡԵ)

Thai. Dusit coronation hall. See Aphisek Dusit Throne Hall.

Phra Thihnang Chakri Maha Prasat (зѡһҷ)

Thai name for the Chakri Throne Hall.

Phra Thihnang Phutthaisawan (зط)

Thai. Name of a Royal Hall (Phra Thihnang) formerly located within the compound of the former Wang Nah Palace, originally the residence of the Krom Phra Rachawang Bowon Sathaan Mongkon, and today part of the National Museum in Bangkok. It was built by the order of Somdet Phra Bowon Raja Chao Maha Surasinghanat, the first viceroy of the Rattanakosin period (fig.), in order to perform royal religious rituals, and initially named Phra Thihnang Sutthahsawan (зط). When the uparacha Surasinghanat in 1787 went to Chiang Mai, he sent back the Phra Phutta Sihing Buddha image (fig.), to be placed in the Phutthaisawan Royal Hall (fig.). The inside of the Royal Hall now still has a row of seats for members of the Royal Family and high-ranking officials (fig.), and the inner door panels at the rear of the hall (fig.) feature on a Thai postage stamp issued in 2008 as part of a set of four stamps on door guardians (fig.). The outer door panels are all decorated with gilded lacquer (fig.).

Phra Thihnang Song Tham (з觷ç)

Thai. ‘Royal Hall to Attend a Sermon. Name of a temporary ceremonial residence used by the King, senior members of the royal family, and the Privy Council, when they attend certain religious ceremonies, such as a cremation. It is usually flanked on each side by a Sala Look Khun, the venue where senior government and palace officials are seated.

Phra Upakhut (ػص)

Thai. Name of a Buddhist deity, who is believed to protect and have authority over all water. READ ON.

Phra Wacharaton (Ѫø)

Thai name for a style of crowned Buddha image from Vajrayana Buddhism. READ ON.

Phra Warun (พระวรุณ)

A Thai god and guardian of the West. Also Varuna.

Phra Wet (Ƿ)

Thai name for Veda.

Phra Wet Photisat (Ƿ⾸ѵ)

Thai for Veda bodhisattva, a designation for Maha Chomphoo, who in Chinese is called Wei Tuo, who in turn is associated with Skanda, the Hindu god of war.

Phra Wikhanesuan (Ԧ)

Another Thai name for Ganesha.

Phra Witsanukam (ɳء)

Thai designation for the divine architect of Universe and the presiding Hindu deity of all craftsmen and architects. He is one of three creator gods found in Hinduism, alongside the Vedic god Prajapati and the Puranic god Brahma. His name is mentioned at the end of the full official name for Bangkok, Krung Thep Maha Nakon, that ends with the words Witsanukam Prasit and translates as ‘built by Vishnukam’. He is also regarded protector or patron god of the arts, together with Ganesha. He also appears in the Ramakien and in khon performances, he is represented with a khon mask in the form of a human head with a green complexion and wearing a diadem-like crown or a chadah-like crown with a black protuberance and a small golden peak, as well as a V-shaped kranok-like ornament over the ears (fig.). He is depicted on a 2013 Thai postage stamp, as part of a set of eight khon masks (fig.) issued to commemorate the annual Thai Heritage Conservation Day by publicizing the national art of khon. His name may also be transcribed Phra Vishnukam.

Phraya (พระยา)

See Phrya.

Phra Yod Khunphon (ʹع)

Thai. Warlord's Top Buddha images. Collective name given to a set of five popular Buddhist amulets, that originated in the past, going as far back as the Lopburi, Sukhothai and the early Ayutthaya Periods, and which survived up to the present time, being continuously remade and worshipped throughout. READ ON.

Phra Yom (พระยม)

Thai name for Yama.

phreah (ព្រះ)

A Khmer word meaning holy or sacred. It is related to the Sanskrit word Brahman and the Thai word Phra. Sometimes spelled preah.

Phreah Bat Dambang Kranhoung (ព្រះបាត់ដំបងក្រញូង)

Khmer. King [of the] Lost Rosewood Stick or Lord [of the] Missing Rosewood Club. An appellation for Neak Tah Dambang Kranhoung (fig.) after he lost the magic club that helped him become a king.

phrenology

Cranial science. See also kwan.

Phrommachan ()

Thai for Brahmacharya.

Phrommat (ʵ)

Thai. Name for the the powerful arrow of Rama (fig.), which he used to shoot the asura Phra Phirap (fig.) and to behead Atsakammalah, amongst others. It is the first of the three arrows in the royal emblem (fig.) of King Rama VII, which are collectively known as Prajadhipok Saktitejana, and as part of the emblem they also appear on his Privy Seal (fig.), one of his royal seals, which in Thai are called Phra Rachalanjakon. Sometimes transcribed Phrommas, and pronounced Phrommaat.

Phrommathep (พรหมเทพ)

Thai. Brahma god. Name of a spit of land near the southern cape of Phuket island, a panoramic spot and popular during sunset. Also Laem Phrommathep and Phromthep.

Phrommawihaan ()

Thai. Viharn or abode of Brahma. Term used in Buddhism to refer to the Sublime Attitudes or the Sublime States of Mind, which are described to number four in total. Cultivation of these Four Sublime Attitudes, also known as the Four Immeasurables, has the power to cause the practitioner to be reborn into Brahma Loka, i.e. the World or Realm of Brahma, the abode of the Brahmas and the highest of the celestial worlds, which consists of twenty heavens and where the inhabitants are free from sensual desires. In Sanskrit, known as Brahmavihara.

Phrom Nakhon ()

Thai. City of Brahma. Name of a legendary prosoporous city ruled by king Phrommathat, the fater of Phra Sang in the story Sangthong (fig.).

Phrya (พระยา)

Thai. A non-hereditary title or bandasak, immediately below a Chao Phrya, and above a Phra. Often pronounced and transcribed as Phya or Phraya. Phichai Dahb Hak (fig.) was a famous Phrya.

phuang chomphu (ǧ)

Thai name for the Coral Vine, i.e. a species of creeper that belongs to the family Polygonaceae, and with the botanical name Antigonon leptopus. Alternatively known as chomphu phuang. See also POSTAGE STAMP.

Phuang Kaew Sih Chan (ǧ)

Thai. Four-storey Crystal Cluster. Name of a kind of kreuang khwaen, i.e. net or frame-like, stringed flower arrangements, that are used to suspend at windows, doorways, gables, etc. It is knitted of mainly jasmine buds (fig.) and white dok rak (fig.), jampah flowers (fig.), and some red roses or dok kulaab (fig.). This type of flower decoration is depicted on a Thai postage stamp issued in 2005 (fig.) It is also referred to as Phuang Ananyah (ǧ͹ѭ), i.e. Unique Cluster.

phuchong (ت)

See Puchong.

Phuc Loc Tho (Phúc Lộc Thọ)

Vietnamese name for the Three Star Gods, who are in Chinese as Fu Lu Shou (fig.) and in Thai referred to as Hok Lok Siw (fig.). Also Phuoc Loc Tho (Phước Lộc Thọ).

Phuket (ภูเก็ต)

Province (map) and island (map) in the Andaman Sea facing the west coast of the southern Thai peninsula. READ ON.

Phuket Gateway

Name of the Tourist Information Centre in Phuket which was built to facilitate visitors coming to the island. It consists of a landscaped garden with 29 large slabs of concrete, erected as pillars. The number of slabs have a symbolical meaning, i.e. the number 2 represents the two heroines of Phuket, whereas the number 9 refers to king Rama IX. The pillars have lists of stories about Phuket on them which were provided by the Phuket Historical Preservation Group. The centre also has a library and a mini theatre showing the Phuket way of life and documentaries of Thailand. The highlight of however is the Ban Lae Chiwit (ҹЪԵ) Monument, a sculpture that consists of a giant tortoiseshell, surrounded by large eggs and which name translates as Home And Life. It was created by professor emeritus Thana Lauhakaikul ( ˡ¡) and reflects the turtle watching legend of Mai Khaw (Mai Kao) beach in the North of Phuket island. Besides this, the tortoiseshell is a symbol for any house or home, whereas the eggs stand for life and development. The sculptor intentionally did not create the tortoiseshell of any specific species of tortoise, thus referring to all homes in general, rather than to the distinctive leathery turtle that occurs on Mai Khaw beach and which in Thai is known as tao ma feuang (ͧ). The shape of the eggs also indicate generality, as their shape is round when seen from the back, like the round eggs of tortoises, but oval when seen from aside. The Ban Lae Chiwit Monument is similar to Sagittarius (fig.), another sculpture of the same sculptor in Lumphini Park, in Bangkok. Phuket Gateway is located in Ta Chatchai, in the amphur Thalahng, Mai Khaw sub-district, near the Thep Krasatri Bridge (оҹ෾ѵ), that connects the island with the mainland province of Phang Nga. In Thai it is called Pratoo Meuang Phuket (еͧ).

Phu La (Phù Lá)

Vietnamese. Name of an ethnic group that lives in the hills of northeastern Vietnam, mostly in Lao Cai Province and some in  Ha Giang Province, as well as in southeastern China, where they are incorporated into and classified as members of the Yi ethnic group. Whereas their population in Vietnam is estimated to be at around 10,000, there are less than 5,000 of them living in China. Besides increasingly speaking Vietnamese, the Phu La also have their own language, which is a branch of the Tibeto-Birman language group known as Lolo.

phum (พุ่ม)

Thai for pear-shaped arrangements, i.e. an egg-like oval body, which is rounded at the bottom, but more pointed −almost cone-shaped− at the top, and which are used as offerings or as architectural features. Its form derives from that of a lotus bud. It can be made of a variety of materials, even rice. There exist several kinds and varieties, such as phum khao, phum dokmai, phum mahk, etc. Some varieties, such as those made from khao tok, i.e. puffed rice, resemble a similar, yet sphere-shaped, Vietnamese artifact made from white, tiny sea shells (fig.).

phum dokmai (พุ่มดอกไม้)

Thai. Real or replica flowers arranged in the shape of a pear, i.e. an egg-like oval body which is rounded at the bottom, but more pointed −almost cone-shaped− at the top, and which is used as an decorative object for offering (fig.). It is often made from dried flowers, wax, silk, etc. It also exists as an architectural element, made from more durable materials, such as bronze (fig.). A similar arrangement made from slices of betel nut is known as phum mahk. Its form derives from that of a lotus bud. Also phum. See also POSTAGE STAMPS.

phum mahk (ҡ)

Thai. A phum or egg/pear-shaped arrangement of sliced betel nut, that is used as an offering in Buddhist temples and ceremonies, especially in the more rural areas of Thailand. See also phanom mahk and phum dokmai.

phumriang (พุมเรียง)

Thai. A tree of the family Sapindaceae, yielding black edible fruit. Also cham ma liang.

phurba (ཕུར་བ)

Tibetan for kila.

Phu Thai (, , )

Thai. Mountain-people. Name of an ethnic group and their language. READ ON.

phutsah (พุทรา)

Thai name for the Chinese Date or Indian Jujube, a small berry-like stone-fruit of an oriental tree of the genus Ziziphus. Its flesh is creamy-white and crispy in some varieties, while grainy in others. It is sweet with a slightly sour taste or acidulous, depending on the variety. They are also found in dried form, usually pitted (fig.). The tree is a food plant for the larvae of the Common Pierrot (fig.).

phuttachaht (طҴ)

Thai name for the Jasmine Vine, i.e. a species of creeper that belongs to the jasmine family Oleaceae, and with the botanical name Jasminum auriculatum. See also POSTAGE STAMP.

Phuttagaya (พุทธคยา)

Thai name for Bodh Gaya.

Phutthaphum (ط)

Thai. Buddha's land. Name in Thai Buddhism used to refer to the realm of death, into which one enters after leaving watthasongsaan, i.e. the cycle of life. In Buddhist temples, such as Wat Rong Khun in Chiang Rai and in the cave temple at the foot of the Marble Mountains (fig.) in Da Nang, this is symbolized by a bridge that one has to traverse, crossing over a pool of hands, i.e. the Lake of the Doomed, whose arms and hands surface from its depth, in a bid to try reaching for help. Those, who enter Phuttaphum, will still be reborn and die again, until they have reached Enlightenment and become a buddha, after which they will go to nirvana.

phuttaraksah (พุทธรักษา)

Thai. Buddha's cure. Flowering plant of the genus Canna. They grow in clusters and their leaves are similar to those of the curcuma or turmeric. It is often seen in Thailand, usually of yellow, orange-red, or pink colour. The yellow variety (fig.) is the symbol of Father's Day in Thailand, celebrated annually on the king's birthday, i.e. 5 December. The yellow variety is depicted on a Thai postage stamp issued in 2003 (fig.). In English, it is commonly known as Canna Lily, and its botanical name is Canna x generalis.

Phuttasakkaraat (พุทธศักราช)

Thai. The Buddhist era in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia beginning on the first anniversary of the parinirvana of the Buddha, in 543 BC. Usually abbreviated as BE.

Phutta Sahtsanah (พุทธศาสนา)

Thai name for Buddhism.

Phuttathaat (ط)

Thai. Buddha's slave. Name for a Buddhist monk or bhikku. READ ON.

phu upatham (ػ)

Thai name for patron, protector or aider, as well as for adoptive parent.

Phya (พระยา)

See Phrya.

Picnic Incident

Name of an incident that happened on 10 December 1636 in Ayutthaya, when a party of around a dozen Dutchmen went for a boat ride on the Chao Phya River. They became drunk and made a nuisance of themselves near one of the ancient capital's holiest temples, Wat Worachet, which they disrespectfully called Wat Boeretiet, what literally means a boor's tit and was possibly used jokingly to describe the pagoda-like chedis and prangs, both scared Buddhist structures. Besides having sailed past the king's palace and breached the palace safety regulations, they went on and behaved obstinately and spitefully against all Siamese who crossed their path, scolding at some, calling names to others. They even hit a servant of the prince and entered a house to steal food from a sick Siamese. When King Prasat Thong (1629 to 1656 AD) learned about the incident, he was so furious he had all the Dutchmen involved arrested and ordered trampled to death by elephants (fig.). As a consequence the king also placed restrictions on the trading activities of the Dutch East India Company. The event is described in detail in the diary of Jeremias van Vliet, the acting director of the V.O.C. outpost in Ayutthaya at the time of the incident.

picture-wing fly

See malaeng wan ponlamai.

Pied Bushchat

Common name for a 13 centimeter tall passerine bird in the family Muscicapidae, and with the scientific designation Saxicola caprata. Males are almost entirely black, except for a white lower belly, rump, and elongated wing patch, while females are dull brown and slightly streaked, with a rusty rump and flanks, a pale vent and throat, and a black tail. Juveniles are similar to females, but they have a scaly appearance on the underside. This species has a wide range, and besides being found in South and Southeast Asia, it also occurs in West and Central Asia. There are about 16 subspecies, many of them island forms, and the subspecies occurring in Thailand is known as Saxicola caprata burmanicus, which is also found in Myanmar, India, South China, and Indochina. In Thai, it is called nok yod yah sih dam (ʹ˭մ), literally black grass-top bird.

Pied Crested Cuckoo

Common name for a bird of the family Cuculidae and with the scientific designation Clamator jacobinus. It is also commonly known as Jacobin Cuckoo, or just Pied Cuckoo. It is found in Central Africa, the southern part of the Middle East, and in parts of South and  Southeast Asia. Whereas it occurs in Sri Lanka and parts of Myanmar year-round, in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent it only appears as a widespread breeding visitor in summer, whilst in Thailand it is a rare winter visitor. Since it is in part migratory, the time of its arrival in northern India heralds the start of the Southwest monsoon rains. It is slim and medium-sized, but with a rather broad, white-tipped tail. Above, it has mostly black plumage with a distinctive white wing patch, whereas the underside is overall creamy white. It also has a characteristic rear crown tuft or crest. In Thai, this bird is known as nok kakkoo khao dam (Ѥ٢Ǵ), i.e. black-and-white cuckoo bird.

Pied Fantail

A small bodied, insectivorous bird, with the scientific name Rhipidura javanica, found in Southeast Asia and common in the lowlands of Thailand. Its upperparts are dark grayish-brown to black (fig.) and its underparts are white, with a broad black band on the breast (fig.). The head is blackish with a thin white supercilium, i.e. an eyebrow-like stripe over the eye (fig.). Its outer tail feathers are broadly tipped white and it has black hairs protruding from between the bill and forehead, and to a lesser extend from between the bill and chin. It can often be seen on the ground, hopping from one spot to another, with its tail held upright, open like a fan. In Thai called nok ih-phraed, often specified as nok ih-phraed thaeb ok dam.

Pied Imperial-pigeon

Common name for a relatively large, pied species of pigeon in the family of Columbidae, which is found in Southeast Asia, ranging from Myanmar and Thailand to Java in the South and the Philippines in the East. It is plain white, with black primaries, flight feathers and tail-tip. It dwells in mangrove and coastal forests, woodlands, plantations and scrub. Pied Imperial-pigeons feed on fruit, in particular the fruit of nutmeg trees, giving it the nickname nutmeg pigeon. It is highly nomadic and will travel long distances from its sleeping and nesting sites to forage in the forests. In Thai it is known as nok lum phoo khao and nok kalum phoo khao.

Pied Kingfisher

A small black and white bird in the family of water kingfishers. It is the only member of the genus Ceryle, with the binomial name Ceryle rudis. Like all other kingfishers, it can be recognized by its large head, long pointed bill, short legs and stubby tail, though it lacks the usual bright colours. Yet, it has developed  two unique abilities, shared by no other kingfishers, i.e. to hunt in both salt and freshwater, and to eat small prey in flight, without having to return to a perch. This allows it to hunt over the sea or in estuaries that lack the perches needed by other kingfishers. Its main diet is fish, though it also feeds on crustaceans and large aquatic insects. It hunts by hovering over the water to spot prey (fig.), which it then dives for. Pied Kingfishers have a complex black-and-white plumage, with a pronounced crest and a long white supercilium, as well as white underparts, with two black bands on the side of the breast in males, whereas females have only one black band on the breast (fig.). Apart from the Americas, it is common throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, ranging from Africa in the West to southern Asia and China in the East, including Thailand, where it is known as nok kra-ten pak lak.

Pied Paddy Skimmer

Another name for the Blackspot Widow.

pig

Bristly, omnivorous, artiodactylous mammal with a broad snout, that often appears in Oriental mythology, i.e. in Hinduism a boar (varaha or male pig) was an avatar of the god Vishnu; in Chinese tradition the pig is twelfth and last animal sign in the Chinese zodiac (fig.); and Zhu Bajie is a half-man half-pig character (fig.) in the story of Xiyouji, better known as Journey to the West, who is also responsible for cleaning the altars of Buddhist temples where boiled pig's heads are frequently offered (fig.). Those born in the Year of the Pig belong to the element shui (), that represents water and correspondents to the colour black and the celestial stems ren () and gu (). The pig is said to be witty and clever, knowledgeable in law and philosophy, but is insubordinate to others. The Sun and Venus are said to serve as the hands of those born in the Year of the Pig, meaning that they have to work hard and endure in order to get their work done, whilst Saturn controls their minds, which causes them to be temperamental and hot-headed, though quickly angered, they are also quick to get over it and they do not easily hold grudges against others. Those born in the Year of the Pig have a tendency to leave the place of their birth and settle elsewhere, and Mars is said to be their seat. The pig features on many a Thai postage stamp, such as the Zodiac Year of the Pig Postage Stamp, issued in 2007 (fig.) and the Songkraan Day Postage Stamp issued in 1995 (fig.). See also Wild Boar and lao moo.

Pig Memorial

Name of a monument located along the Old City Moat on Rattanakosin Island, adjacent to the Pihkun Bridge (fig.). It was constructed in 1913 to commemorate the 50th birthday anniversary of Queen Saowapha, who was born on 1 January 1864 AD, though with the Thai New Year being in April, then still considered the Year of the Pig according to the Chinese zodiac, which according to the Gregorian calendar was in 1863 AD. In Thai, the monument is known as anusahwarih moo (͹), though it is officially called saha chaht (˪ҵ), which means those who were born in the same year, a name refers to the fact that it was commissioned by three of her contemporaries, who were born in the same year, namely Prince Narisara Nuwattiwong (who designed the memorial), as well as Phraya Phiphatkosa (ԾѲ) and Phraya Ratcha Songkhram (Ҫʧ), as a gesture of gratitude to the Queen. The monument is in cast-iron and was initially erected standing atop a base made from big stone slabs pilling on top of each other, which today has been replaced by a higher hill-like base made of cement. See also Varaha (fig.).

Pig-tail Macaque

See ling hang san.

pih (ปี่)

Thai. General name for a flute of which there are many varieties, such as the pih chawah