Sanskrit term referring to the mental states or mental factors, which in
Buddhism are identified within the teachings of the
Abhidhamma, i.e. Buddhist philosophy and higher teachings about the
dhamma. They are defined as aspects of the mind that capture the quality of an object, and that have the ability to positively influence the mind. The lists of these mental factors varies according to tradition and in the
Theravada tradition they are generally said to be 52 in number, whereas the
Mahayana tradition typically lists less. The Theravada school's 52
mental states consist of 7 universal mental factors, being contact, feeling, perception, volition, one-pointedness, life faculty, attention; 6 occasional mental factors, namely application of thought, examining, decision, energy, rapture, and desire (to act); 14 unwholesome mental factors, i.e. delusion, lack of shame, disregard for consequence, restlessness, greed, wrong view, conceit, hatred, envy, miserliness, regret, sloth, torpor, and doubt; 25 beautiful mental factors, which are faith, mindfulness, shame at doing evil, regard for consequence, lack of greed, lack of hatred, balance (neutrality of mind), tranquility of mental body, tranquility of consciousness, lightness of mental body, lightness of consciousness, malleability or softness of mental body, malleability or softness of consciousness, wieldiness of mental body, wieldiness of consciousness, proficiency of mental body, proficiency of consciousness, straightness or rectitude of mental body, straightness or rectitude of consciousness, right speech, right action, right livelihood, compassion, sympathetic joy, and wisdom. In Thai, it is known as Chetasik, a term used for emotions that arise from the mind. See also Indriya.